The Pig War Bibliography

Haro Strait
The Haro Strait, the U.S.-claimed boundary channel, as painted by James Madison Alden of the Northwest Boundary Survey, circa 1858-1859.

National Archives



Floyd, Dale. Comparative Analysis, American Camp Fortifications, San Juan Island National Historical Park. Washington, D.C. 1996

Sprague, Roderick, Ed. San Juan Archaeology. Bound MMS, two volumes. University of Idaho, Moscow. 1983.

Thompson, Erwin N. Historic Resource Study: San Juan Island NHP. MMS. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, Washington. 1972.

Wray, Jacilee. The Salmon Bank: An Ethnohisoric Compilation. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, Washington. 2003.


Haller, Granville O. The San Juan Imbroglio. Typewritten MMS, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. 1889.

Pratt, Boyd. Belle Vue Sheep Farm. MMS. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, Washington. 2003.

_________. The Disputed Islands: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times, The San Juan Archipelago, 1850-1874. MMS. Friday Harbor, Washington, 2008.

Roder (Roeder), Henry. Dictation by Hubert H. Bancroft. Handwritten MMS, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. 1878.

Vouri, Michael P. George Pickett and the Frontier Army Experience, Washington Territory 1854-1859. MMS. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, Washington. 1994.

_____________. Safe Passage: The Coast Survey Steamer Active and the Defense of Puget Sound, MMS. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, Washington. 2006.

Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott
Lt.Gen. Winfield Scott traveled to the San Juan Islands from New York City to mediate the Pig War crisis.

National Archives


Friday Harbor, (Washington), San Juan Islander, 1909.

London, (England), Illustrated News, 1859. Olympia, (Washington), Pioneer and Democrat, 1855-59.

Seattle, (Washington), Post-Intelligencer, 1892. Victoria, (B.C.), Colonist, 1859-72.

Victoria (B.C.), Gazette, 1859.

Government Documents

National Archives, Washington D. C.

RG 92, E225, Consolidated Correspondence Files, San Juan Island, Box 985

RG 393, Post Records, San Juan Island, eight volumes:

Vol. 1: Letters Sent (Camp Pickett Only, August 1859-July 1861)
Vol. 2: Letters Sent (August 1863-July 1867) Vol. 3: Letters Sent (October 1868-January1872)
Vol. 4: Letters Sent (August 1867-September 1868)
Vol. 5: Orders and Special Orders (August 1859-December 1861)
Vol. 6: General Orders, Special Orders (January 1861- September1868)
Vol. 7A: Orders and Special Orders (1868-1874) Records and Reclaims,
Vol. 7 (History and Description of Post)

RG76, E198, Journals of Exploring Surveys. Geographical Memoir of the Islands between the Continent and Vancouver Island in the Vicinity of the 49th Parallel of North Latitude, SAJHA. Archibald Campbell with appendices by Dr. C.B.R. Kennerly, George Gibbs, Henry Custer and W.J. Warren. [The memoir, without the appendices, was published as part of the record of the 40th Congress. The appendices were hand-copied by Mr. Greg Lange and kindly provided to the park by Dr. Wayne Suttles.

Microfilm, M617, Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800-1916, Roll 1112, San Juan Island, Washington Territory.

Report of Col. Joseph K.F. Mansfield on the U.S. Military Reservation at Bellingham Bay, Washington Territory, Dec. 7-8, 1858.

Official Record of the War of Rebellion, San Juan Island Correspondence, 1861-1865, Series L. Pacific Campaign

Public Records Office, Kew, United Kingdom

FO14/414 Correspondence Pertaining to San Juan Island

ADM38/3532 Mustering records from Her Majesty’s Ships

ADM 157/271 Personnel files
ADM 157/475
ADM 157/ 483

ADM 201/38 Settlements: papers from nine overseas posts 1809-1878
ADM 201/38 159796, San Juan papers

ADM12 Digests, 1855 – 1862, Vancouver’s/San Juan island

National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

RG8, Series II B, Micro. Reel C-12616, Admiralty, Pacific Station Records 1859-1872

MG12, 5-1475 -- ADM 1/6151, Records pertaining to San Juan Island

British Columbia Archives

K/RS/Sa5 San Juan Island papers

Capt. Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, RN
It was the calm and firm resolve of Capt. Geoffrey Phipps Hornby that stopped the crisis from escalating.

SAJH Image

Government Publications

U.S. Congress. Senate. Executive Document No. 10. 36th Cong., 1st. Sess. The Northwest Boundary Discussion of the Water Boundary Question: Geographical Memoir of the Islands in Dispute: and History of the Military Occupation of San Juan Island. Washington, D.C.: 1868.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Executive Document No. 29th Cong., 2nd Sess. Report of the Secretary of State. Washington, D.C.: 1867-1868.

U.S. Navy Department, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Naval History Division.Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Vol. IV. Washington, D.C.: 1969.

Fields, Virgil, F., ed. The National Guard, State of Washington, Collection of Official Documents on the San Juan Imbroglio, 1859-1872. (N.D., N.P.)

British Foreign Office. San Juan Boundary: Abstract of Correspondence Relative to the Disputed Right of Territory Watered by the Oregon, or Columbia River. 1842 to 1869. December 1871. (Marked "Confidential.") This document is essentially a narrative of correspondence and documents related to the issue compiled by the British foreign Office.

Other Documents

Howard E. Buswell Collections, Center for Pacific Northwest Studies, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225. Buswell was a longtime Bellingham historian, who compiled an extensive collection of pamphlets, photographs, maps, journals, historical reference works, newspapers, microfilms and audio-tapes. His primary interest was lower Nooksack Valley history.

Hudson's Bay Company Records, microfilm, Post Journals, Belle Vue Sheep Farm, 1854-1855 and 1858-1862. Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Joy, W., Journals. Portsmouth City Museum, England, United Kingdom. Copies housed in the archives of San Juan Island NHP.

Roder, Henry, Capt. Narrative, dictation by Hubert Howe Bancroft, Port Townsend, Washington, June 22, 1978. H.H. Bancroft Collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Robertson ,A. MacGregor, Captain, Royal Marines, Historian,. Royal Marines Barracks, Eastney, Southsea, Hants, England, letter to Terry Pettus, Seattle, Wa, 9 January 1962. San Juan Island NHP Archive.

Whitlock, Charles. Correspondence 1859-1869, excerpts, RM Museum, Eastney Barracks, Southsea, Hampshire, England San Juan island NHP Archive.

Views of the Pacific Northwest. Yale Collection of Western Americana, Bienecke rare Book and Manuscript Library, WA MSS S-1817, Box 6, Folder 32.

The Globe and Laurel, 1898 edition (Journal of the Royal Marines)

Map of American Camp, circa 1860
The U.S. Army camp and Belle Vue Sheep Farm, circa 1860, at the start of the 12-year joint military occupation of the island.

San Juan Island NHP


Northwest Ships & Shipping Database. Tacoma, Washington: Tacoma Public Library.

San Juan Island National Historical Park Home Page. Friday Harbor, Washington: San Juan Island National Historical Park, 1998. (Note: This section of the bibliography is under construction.)


Bagstraw, Roberta L., editor. No Better Land: The 1860 Diaries of the Anglican Colonial Bishop George Hills. Victoria, B.C.: Sono Nis Press, 1996.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of the Pacific States of America.Volume XXVI, History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, 1845-1889. San Francisco: The History Company, Publishers. 1890.

__________________. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of the Pacific States of North America. Volume XXVI, History of British Columbia, 1872-1887 San Francisco: The History Company, Publishers. 1887.

Barkan, Francis B., ed. The Wilkes Expedition Puget Sound and the Oregon Country, Washington State Capital Museum, Olympia, Washington, 1987.

Beckey, Fred. Range of Glaciers: The Exploration and Survey of the Northern Cascade Range. Portland, OR: The Oregon Historical Society Press, 2003.

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. A Diplomatic History of the United States. New York: Henry Holt and Company (3rd ed.), 1950.

Bennett, Robert A., ed. A Small World of Our Own: Authentic pioneer stories of the Pacific Northwest from the Old Settlers' Contest of 1892. Walla Walla,WA: Pioneer Press Books, 1985.

Billings, John David. Hardtack and Coffee: Or the Unwritten Story of Army Life. Williamstown, MA: Corner House Publishers, 1973.

Billington, Ray Allen. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. 3rd edition. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1967.

Blumberg, General Sir H.E., KOB. History of the Royal Marines, 1837-1914, Royal Marines Historical Society Archives Series, Vol. 3.

Clow, Richmond L. "William S. Harney." In Soldier's West: Biographies from the Military Frontier, edited by Paul Andrew Hutton. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

Coffman, Edward M. The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1884-1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Dawson, Will. The War That Was Never Fought. Princeton, New Jersey: Auerbach Publishers, 1971.

Deutsch, Herman J., ed. Surveying the 49th Parallel, 1858-61. Tacoma,WA: Washington State Historical Society, 1962.

DeVoto, Bernard. The Year of Decision 1846. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1943.

Duncan, Janice K. Minority without a Champion Kanakas on the Pacific Coast, 1788-1850, Portland,OR: Oregon Historical Society, 1972.

Eardly-Wilmot S., Lieutanent, ed., Our Journal of the Pacfiic by the Officers in H.M.S. Zealous. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1873.

Edgerton, Mrs. Fred, Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, Edinburgh, 1896.

Edson, Lelah Jackson. The Fourth Corner. Bellingham, WA: The Whatcom Museum of History and Art, 1968.

Eisenhower, John S.D. Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott. New York: The Free Press, 1997.

__________________. So Far From God The U.S. War with Mexico 1846-1848. New York: Doubleday, 1989.

Elliot, Charles Winslow. Winfield Scott: The Soldier and the Man. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1937.

Faust, Patricia L., ed. Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.

Ficken, Robert E. Unsettled Boundaries: Fraser Gold and the British-American Northwest. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, 2003.

Fisher, Robin and Johnston, Hugh, ed. From Maps to Metaphors: The Pacific World of George Vancouver. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1993.

Gardner, Alison F. James Douglas. Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Ltd., 1976.

Gates, Charles Marvin, ed. "Report of Col. Joseph J.K. Mansfield on the U.S. military reservation at Port Townsend, Washington Territory, Dec. 3-4, 1858." Readings in Pacific Northwest History, Washington 1790-1895, Seattle, WA: University Bookstore, 1941.

Goetzmann, William H., and Glyndwr Williams. The Atlas of North American Exploration From the Norse Voyages to the Race to the Pole. New York: Prentice Hall General Reference, 1992.

Goetzman, William H. New Lands, New Men America and the Second Great Age of Discovery. New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1986.

___________________, Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863. Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1991.
Royal Marines working in the vegetable garden, circa 1860
Royal Marines work the vegetable garden in their new camp on Garrison Bay, San Juan Island, circa April 1860.

San Juan Island NHP

Gordon, Leslie J., Pickett: General George Pickett in Life & Legend. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gough, Barry M. The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast of North America, 1810-1914. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1971.

Green, Frank L. Captains, Curates and Cockneys: The English in the Pacific Northwest. Tacoma,WA: Washington State Historical Society, 1981.

Haller, Granville, O. San Juan and Secession. Seattle: The Shorey Book Store, 1967.

Hart, Herbert M. Pioneer Forts of the West. Seattle: Superior Publishing Company, 1967.

Haycox, Stephen; Barnett, James K.; and Liburd, Caedmon A.., eds. Enlightenment and Exploration in the North Pacific 1741-1805. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.
Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1999.

Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Heidler. Old Hickory’s War Andrew Jackson and the Quest for Empire. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1996.

Higgins, D.W. The Mystic Spring and Other Tales of Western Life. Toronto: William Briggs, 1904.

Hollett, David. The Alabama Affair: The British Shipyards Conspiracy in the American Civil War. Wilmslow, Cheshire, England: Sigma Press, 1993.

Hough, Richard. Captain James Cook: A Biography. London: Cornet, 1995.

Howay, Frederick, W. British Columbia from the Earliest Times to the Present. Vancouver: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1914.

Hutchinson, Bruce. The Struggle for the Border. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1955.

James, Lawrence. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1997.

Johansen, Dorothy O., and Charles M. Gates. Empire of the Columbia: a History of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 1957.

Johnson, Timothy D. Winfield Scott: The Quest for Military Glory. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Vintage Books, 1991.

Kaufman, Scott. The Pig War: The United States, Britain, and the Balance of Power in the Pacific Northwest, 1846-1872. New York: Lexington Books, 2004.

Kelsey, Harry. Sir Francis Drake: The Queen's Pirate. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

Kemble, John Haskell. The Panama Route, 1848-1869. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1990.

Lavender, David. Land of Giants: The Drive to the Pacific Northwest, 1750-1950. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1958.

Longacre, Edward G. Pickett: Leader of the Charge. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Publishing Company, Inc., 1995.

Macfie, Matthew. Vancouver Island and British Columbia, their History, Resources and Prospects. London: Longman, Green, 1865.

Mackie, Richard Somerset. Trading Beyond the Mountains: The British Fur Trade on the Pacific 1793-1843. Vancouver, B.C., Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 1997.

McCabe, James O. The San Juan Water Boundary Question. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965.

McConaghy, Lorraine. Warship Under Sail: The USS Decatur in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle & London: University of Washington Press, 2009.

McDougall, Walter A. Let The Sea Make A Noise: A History of the North Pacific from Magellan to MacArthur. New York: Basic Books, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1993.

Miller, David Hunter. San Juan Archipelago: Study of the Joint Occupation of San Juan Island. Belows Falls, VT: Wyndam Press, 1943.

________________. Northwest Water Boundary, Report of the Experts Summoned by the German Emporer as Arbitrator Under Articles 34-42 of the Treaty of Washington of May 8, 1871, Preliminary to His Award dated October 21, 1872, Seattle: University of Washington, 1942.

Milton, Viscount W. Fitzwilliam, M.P. A History of the San Juan Water Boundary Question as affecting the Division of Territory Between Great Britain and the United States. London: Cassell, Peter and Galpin, 1869.

Morgan, Murray. Puget's Sound: A Narrative of Early Tacoma and the Southern Sound. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1979.

Mozino, Jose Mariano. Noticias de Nutka: An Account of Nootka Sound in 1792. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1970.
Murray, Keith. The Pig War. Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society, 1968.

Newman, Peter C. Caesars of the Wilderness. London: Penquin Books, 1988.

Nokes, J., Richard. Columbia's River The Voyages of Robert Gray, 1787-1793. Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society, 1991.

________________. Almost a Hero: The Voyages of John Meares, R.N., to China, Hawaii and the Northwest Coast. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press, 1998.

Peck, William A., Jr. (Coulter, C. Brewster and Webber, Bert, eds.). The Pig War and other Experiences of William Peck, Soldier, 1858-1862, edited by C. Brewster Coulter and Bert Webb. Medford, OR: Webb Research Group, 1993.

Pethick, Derek. James Douglas: Servant of Two Empires. Vancouver: Mitchell Press Limited, 1969.

Philbrick, Nathaniel. Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842. New York: Viking, 2003.

Pickett, LaSalle Corbell. Pickett and His Men. Atlanta: Foote & Davis Company, 1889.

___________________, ed. The Heart of a Soldier as Revealed in the Intimate Letters of Genl. George E. Pickett, C.S.A. New York: Seth Moyle, 1913.

Polk, James Knox. Polk: Diary of a President, 1845-1849, edited by Allan Nevins. New York: Longman's, Green and Co., 1929.

Rabin, Jonathan. Passage to Juneau: A Sea and Its Meanings, New York: Pantheon, 1999.

Richards, Kent D. Isaac I. Stevens: Young Man in a Hurry. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, 1993.

Richardson, David. Pig War Islands. Eastsound, WA: Orcas Publishing Company, 1971.

Roth, Lottie Roder, ed. History of Whatcom County. Vol. I. Seattle: Pioneer Historical Publishing Co., 1926.

Scott, James W., and Roland L. DeLorme. Historical Atlas of Washington. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

Selcer, Richard F. Faithfully and Forever Your Soldier: General George E. Pickett, CSA. Gettysburg, PA: Farnsworth House Military Impressions, 1995.

Smith, Dwight L., editor. A Tour of Duty in the Pacific Northwest: E.A. Porcher and H.M.S. Sparrowhawk, 1865-1868. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press, 2000.

Stanley, George, F.G., ed. Mapping the Frontier: Charles Wilson's Diary of the Survey of the 49th Parallel, 1858-1862, While Secretary of the British Boundary Commission. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1970.

Stenzel, Franz. James Madison Alden: Yankee Artist of the Pacific Coast, 1854-1860. Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, 1975.

Stein, Julie K., Exploring Coast Salish Prehistory: The Archaeology of San Juan Island. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.

Sterne, Netta. Fraser Gold 1858!: The Founding of British Columbia. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press, 1998.

Stewart, George R. Pickett's Charge: A Microhistory of the Final Attack at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.

Suttles, Wayne E. Coast Salish Essays. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. 1987.

_______________, editor. Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 7, Northwest Coast. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1990.

Swan, James G. The Northwest Coast: Or Three Year's Residence in Washington Territory. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1992.

Utley, Robert M. Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1967.

_____________. Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866-1891. Bloomington and London: University of Indiana Press, 1973.

Vouri, Michael P. The Pig War: Standoff on Griffin Bay. Friday Harbor, WA: Griffin Bay Books, 1999.

_____________. The Pig War: Standoff at Griffin Bay (Second Edition). Seattle, WA: Discover Your Northwest/University of Washington Press, 2013.

_______________. Outpost of Empire: The Royal Marines and the Joint Occupation of San Juan Island. Seattle: Northwest Interpretive Association/University of Washington Press, 2004.

_______________. The Pig War. San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2008.

_______________and Julia Vouri and the San Juan Historical Society. Friday Harbor. San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2009.

Winders, Richard Bruce. Polk's Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1997.

Wood, Bryce. San Juan Island Coastal Place Names and Cartographic Nomenclature. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1980.

Wright, E.W., ed. Lewis & Dryden's Marine History of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Antiquarian Press, Ltd., 1961.

Captain Delacombe and his officers at English Camp, circa 1870.
Captain William A. Delacombe and his officers on Officers Hill at English Camp, circa 1870.

San Juan Island NHP


Barry, J. Nielson. "San Juan Island and the Civil War." Washington Historical Quarterly, 20:2. April 1929.

Clark, Robert Carlton, "The Diplomatic Mission of Sir John Rose, 1871." Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 27:3, July 1936.

Fish, Andrew, "The Last Phase of the Oregon Boundary Question: The Struggle for San Juan Island." Oregon Historical Quarterly, XXII: 3, September 1921.

Franklin, Deborah, "The Boar War," The Smithsonian, June 2005.

Hamblett, E.T., "Sovereign Americans on San Juan island." Washington Historical Quarterly, 1:1, October 1906.

Howard, Joseph Kinsey, "Manifest Destiny and the British Empire's Pig." Montana, The Magazine of History, 5:4, Autumn 1955.

Howay, F.W., Lewis, William S., and Meyers, Jacob A.,"Angus McDonald: A Few Items from the West." Washington Historical Quarterly,8:3, July 1917.

Jordan, Mabel E., "The British on San Juan Island." Canadian Geographical Journal, LIX:1, July 1959.

Long, John W., "The Origin and development of the San Juan Island Water Boundary Controversy." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 43:3, July 1952.

McKay, Charles, "History of San Juan Island." Washington Historical Quarterly, 23:1,2,3,4 January-October 1932.

Magnuson, Warren G., "One-shot War with England." American Heritage, XI:3, April 1960.

Murray, Keith, "Pig War Letters: A Romantic Account of the San Juan Crisis." Columbia, The Magazine of Northwest History, 1:3, Fall 1987.

Patterson, Gerard A., "George E. Pickett -- A Personality Profile." Civil War Times Illustrated 5, May 1966.

Selcer, Richard F., "George Pickett: Another Look." Civil War Times Illustrated, (July/August 1994).

Smith, Albert Goldwin, "Notes on the problem of San Juan." Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 31:2, (April 1940).

Vouri, Michael P. "Raiders from the North: Northern Indians in Washington Territory in the 1850s." Columbia Magazine, 11:3, (Fall 1997).

______________. "The San Juan Sheep War." Columbia Magazine, 14:4 (Winter 2000-2001).

Last updated: March 1, 2015

Park footer

Contact Info

Mailing Address:

P.O. Box 429
Friday Harbor , WA 98250


360 378-2240

Contact Us

Stay Connected