Guide to National Historic Landmarks Designated After 1999 (Updated May 2006)
Bethel Baptist Church, Parsonage, and Guardhouse
3232, 3233 and 3236 29th Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County
The Bethel Baptist Church and parsonage, and a private residence known as the guardhouse are significant in the evolution of the 1950s church-led southern civil rights movement. The Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR), headquartered in Bethel Baptist Church from 1956-1961, confronted multiple aspects of racial discrimination that served as a model for the 1963 Birmingham campaign that led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The ACMHR was also pivotal to the success of the 1961 Freedom Ride that compelled the Federal Government to enforce the desegregation of interstate public transportation and facilities. The church and parsonage were places of refuge for wounded and stranded riders rescued by ACMHR members, and where activist Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth coordinated with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Kennedy administration to continue the ride on to Montgomery.
Sixth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County
The University of Alabama’s Foster Auditorium is nationally significant for its association with the historical movement to desegregate public higher education, and with the Federal Government’s efforts to eliminate racial segregation in the United States. As the site of Governor George Wallace’s 1963 “stand in the school house door,” Foster Auditorium marks a significant victory in the desegregation struggle, where Federal authority countered State resistance to desegregation. Here, on June 11, 1963, Vivian Malone and James Hood were able to complete registration at the University. This event compelled President Kennedy to appeal to a national sense of fairness during a nationwide address on June 11, and on June 19 the President submitted civil rights legislation to Congress that dealt with public accommodations, school desegregation, and equal employment. Kenworthy Hall Greensboro Highway, 2 miles west of Courthouse Square, Marion, Perry County Built between 1858 and 1861, Kenworthy Hall is among the most intact surviving examples of architect Richard Upjohn’s distinctive asymmetrical “Italian Villa” style. Internationally known for his church designs, Upjohn became one of the most original practitioners of domestic design in antebellum America. This is the only documented Upjohn property outside the Northeast. To Andrew Jackson Downing, Upjohn was a master architect whose work created “harmony growing out of variety” among the many period revivals during the mid-nineteenth century.
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
1530 6th Avenue, Birmingham, Jefferson County
The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church is associated with two events that helped lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Between May 2-8, 1963, participants of nonviolent marches led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and other prominent civil rights leaders used this church as a meeting and training place, and as a departure point for the marches. The marches garnered national and international media attention when Public Safety Commissioner “Bull” Connor released dogs and powerful water hoses on the marchers, which included school children. The Kennedy administration interceded to reach a settlement on May 10. On September 18, 1963, Ku Klux Klan members bombed the church, killing four young girls, once again drawing international attention to the violent struggle for civil rights in the South.
Amalik Bay Archaeological District
Address Restricted, King Salmon, Lake and Peninsula Counties
Amalik Bay was a gateway for the widespread exchange of ideas and technological innovations, including groundslate tools and Norton-style pottery, hallmarks in the development of coastal Eskimo economies across the far northern reaches of the continent. The lowest cultural levels found at sites in the district are particularly significant in answering questions about early coastal vs. interior migrations, as the site is dated precisely to the cusp between the Paleoarctic (mostly interior) and later traditions. The Amalik Bay sites, located in a position between the Bristol Bay side of the Alaska Peninsula (linguistically Yupik Eskimo) to the northwest and Kodiak Island (Alutiiq Eskimo) to the southeast, are significant for their potential to shed light on provocative questions concerning Alutiiq ethnogenesis. The Mink Island site, one of 28 contributing properties to the Amalik Bay district, plays a pivotal role in understanding the breadth of early (ca. 8,000 years BP) coastal technologies from the Aleutians eastward along the entire southern coast of Alaska.
Sheldon Jackson School
801 Lincoln Street, Sitka, Sitka Borough-Census Area
The Sheldon Jackson School is nationally significant for its important role in the education of Native Alaskans during the first half of the twentieth century and in the transformation of Southeast Native Alaskan cultures during this period. Native American students were forced, through English language instruction, removal from their homes and families, and the promotion of non-native vocational training, to adopt Euro-American cultural patterns. The school also played an important although indirect role, through its students, in the development of Native Alaskan political organization and the pursuit of legal rights for Native Alaskans.
Navajo Nation Council Chamber
W008-013 Boulevard, Window Rock, Apache County
This significant building illustrates the New Deal revolution in Federal Indian policy during the 1930s that advocated reconstitution of tribal organization, restoration of tribal land base, and promotion of traditional Indian culture. The building continues to serve as the seat of government for the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian tribe with the largest reservation in the United States. It includes important murals and other artwork depicting the Navajo Nation’s history.
Daisy Bates House
1207 West 28th Street, Little Rock, Pulaski County
The Daisy Bates House is nationally significant for its role as the de facto command post for the Central High School desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas. It was the first time a President used federal powers to uphold and implement a federal court decision regarding school desegregation. Mrs. Daisy Lee Gaston Bates, President of the State NAACP, and her husband, Lucius Christopher (L.C.) Bates, resided here during the crisis in 1957-58. The house was a haven for the nine African American students who desegregated Central High School and a place to plan the best way to achieve their goals. This event in Little Rock marks a significant threshold in the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Centennial Baptist Church
York and Columbia Streets, Helena, Phillips County
Centennial Baptist Church was home base for Reverend (Dr.) Elias Camp Morris from the construction of the church in 1905 until his death in 1922. While serving as pastor, Dr. Morris was president (1895-1922) of the National Baptist Convention, the largest African-American organization in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century, through which Morris brought attention to the right of African Americans to establish independent religious associations. During Morris’s presidency, Centennial Baptist Church functioned as the headquarters of the National Baptist Convention. Morris was able to provide a voice for African American scholars through the Convention by aiding the establishment of the National Baptist Publishing Board which was devoted to the production of religious materials for African American congregations.
Baldwin Hills Village
5300 Rodeo Drive, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County
The idea for Baldwin Hills Village originated in the 1930s when prominent Los Angeles architect Reginald Johnson (1882-1952) decided to create a new type of community. The intent was to provide affordable housing to help the nation recover from the devastation of the great depression. Constructed between 1935 and 1942, Baldwin Hills incorporates mature “garden city” planning concepts and an elegant Beaux-Art design. The community's plan has received many awards and national recognition for its advances in community planning and architecture. The 64- acre property contains 162 contributing resources that date from the 1935-1942 period of significance.
Coso Rock Art District
Address Restricted, China Lake, Inyo County
Formerly designated in 1964 as Big and Little Petroglyphs Canyon under National Historic Landmarks Criterion 6, a revised nomination added Criterion 5, expanded the boundaries and established the property as one contiguous district, and changed the name of the Landmark. Current archeological investigations have shown that these extraordinary concentrations of prehistoric petroglyphs occur in the canyons incised through the basaltic formations of the Coso Range, and across the surroundings tablelands. These engraved rock art panels and a suite of prehistoric features and resource types are rare or non-existent in the surrounding granitic and alluvial landforms, making for a very discrete and cohesive district.
First Pacific Coast Salmon Cannery Site
Broderick, Yolo County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. Numerous floods and modifications associated with the site’s redevelopment as a park have caused the property to lose the qualities that could be associated with the original appearance of the riverbank.
Fresno Sanitary Landfill
West and Jensen Avenues, Fresno, Fresno County
One characteristic of late nineteenth and early twentieth century America was a concerted effort to minimize nuisances that offended the senses, and to apply scientific and engineering principles to reduce their impact on public health. For example, rapidly expanding municipalities explored improved methods of garbage disposal, including open burning or enclosed incinerating, dumping at distant locations on land or water, or chemically “reducing” it and selling various reusable byproducts. These solutions encountered their own technological or economic impediments, or merely supplanted one nuisance for another. Even by the less sophisticated standards of the time, a “sanitary” solution eluded most communities. In 1934 Fresno’s Commissioner of Public Works, Jean Vincenz, developed a new method of disposal that became a model for the Nation. After the collected refuse was combined with dirt and placed in trenches, it was compacted and covered with clean dirt fill. Repeated day after day, this resulted in the man-made mounds visible on the outskirts of so many communities. By greatly minimizing the nuisances associated with odors, rodents, and exposed refuse, Vincenz’s method attracted great interest and was widely applied by communities throughout the United States, and elsewhere. Nevertheless, later advances in science and technology, and a more sophisticated appreciation of ecological interdependencies, eventually revealed the environmental hazards of unlined landfills leaching hazardous substances into ground water.
Mission San Miguel Arcángel
801 Mission Street, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County
This mission is nationally significant in the context of Spanish exploration and settlement of California. It represents a rare example of primitive Spanish Colonial mission architecture and the only surviving example of unrestored colonial art in any California mission. The property includes a rare, undisturbed site of a neophyte village. The 1818 church is unaltered and contains the only original fresco work in the California Missions. The convento, where the fathers lived, is original.
5164 East Telegraph Road, Piru, Ventura County
Rancho Camulos is nationally significant for its close association with the novel Ramona. First published in 1884, Helen Hunt Jackson’s Ramona fictionally illustrated the plight of California Native cultures in a way designed to elicit popular support, much like Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Ramona experienced nationwide popularity during the first half of the twentieth century. It played a central role in fashioning a regional identity for Southern California at a time when the West was trying to establish an historical and cultural legitimacy separate but comparable with the East. As the home of the fictional Ramona, Rancho Camulos became an important tourist attraction and played an important part in the creation of a romanticized image of California’s past.
Santa Barbara County Courthouse
1100 Anacapa Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County
The Santa Barbara County Courthouse is nationally significant for its architecture. In The City Observed: Los Angeles (1984), Charles Moore called it the “grandest Spanish Colonial Revival structure ever built.” The Courthouse was a prime early catalyst for the community in its quest to remake itself to more fully reflect its Spanish roots.
3200 Washington Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County
Begun in England during the late 1880s, the Arts and Crafts movement in the United States sought to unite social reform, architecture, art, and the decorative arts. The hallmark of buildings in this style was their open plans and their straight forward but beautifully finished and furnished interiors. With its close association of fine art and building craft, the church is, both in the process of its creation and in physical fact, a paradigm of what the Arts and Crafts movement was trying to be. It was described in Arts & Crafts Design in America (1998) as California’s earliest pure Arts and Crafts building. The three-buildings and connecting garden that make up this complex represents a unique collaboration of many influential architects and craftspeople.
Tule Lake Segregation Center
West of State Highway 139, Newell, Modoc County
Tule Lake was the largest and longest-lived of the ten camps built by the civilian War Relocation Authority (WRA) to house Japanese Americans relocated from the west coast of the United States under the terms of Executive Order 9066. In 1943, Tule Lake was converted to a maximum security segregation center for evacuees from all the relocation centers whom the WRA had identified as “disloyal.” Consequently, it had the most guard towers, the largest number of military police, eight tanks, and its own jail and stockade. In spite of the high security, the center was plagued by conflict; in November 1943, Tule Lake was taken over by the army and placed under martial law until January 1944. The National Historic Landmark portion of the center focuses on the central core area, including the stockade jail and large sections of the original barbed wire fence that testify to the high security that defined the segregation center.
900 Baseline Road, Boulder, Boulder County
The Chautauqua movement, which flourished between 1874 and the Great Depression, brought unprecedented educational, cultural, and recreational opportunities to millions of Americans. The Chautauqua Idea was institutionalized in two distinct formats: the independent assembly and the circuit chautauqua. The independent assembly was designed to be held annually in the summer at a permanent location. The circuit chautauqua was a traveling troupe of educators and entertainers that brought a week or two of programming to rural towns. Founded in 1898 as the Texas-Colorado Chautauqua by Texas educators and Boulder civic leaders, the Colorado Chautauqua was originally designated as a summer school for Texas teachers. Its programming successfully assimilated the popular entertainment featured at the circuit chautauqua with the educational emphasis of the independent assembly. Displaying more historic integrity than any extant chautauqua, the Colorado Chautauqua is the only site of its kind – an independent institution established and continuously operating as a chautauqua open to the public.
Granada Relocation Center
23900 County Road FF, Granada, Prowers County
The Granada Relocation Center was one of ten camps built by the wartime War Relocation Authority to house Japanese Americans relocated from the West Coast under the terms of Executive Order 9066. The Executive Order authorized the military to create restricted zones from which any and all people could be excluded based on “military necessity,” but it was applied only to Japanese Americans and only on the West Coast. Granada was occupied from August 1942 to October 1945. At its peak, it housed more than 7,000 Japanese Americans, both long-term resident aliens and native-born citizens, in tar-paper-covered barracks surrounded by guard towers and barbed wire fences. Although all of the major buildings are gone, the system of roadways and most of the barracks foundations survive in good condition.
Rocky Mountain National Park Administration Building
State Highway 36, Estes Park, Larimer County
The park “visitor center” was the central planning and design element of the Mission 66 program. The Rocky Mountain National Park Administration Building (1967) was one of the most important commissions (other than those initiated by Wright himself) for Taliesen Associated Architects in the early years of the firm, during the critical time following Frank Lloyd Wright’s death in 1959. This building further legitimized the use of modern architecture in the parks. It was a powerful and influential example of how modern construction techniques and architectural style could be appropriate and successful for national park development.
Shenandoah-Dives (Mayflower) Mill
Highway 110, Silverton, San Juan County
Constructed in 1929, the Shenandoah-Dives Mill is the finest extant example of a selective flotation mill. This property illustrates the transformation of the mining and milling industry and the distinctive characteristics of the hard-rock milling process during the first half of the twentieth century. Flotation, introduced to the American mining industry in 1912, was an innovative concentration process that separated valuable minerals from complex ores. This process efficiently and economically concentrated complex ores that were practically impossible to treat by earlier methods. The flotation process solved the problem of diminishing high-grade ore supplies and allowed increased minerals production.
United States Air Force Academy, Cadet Area
Colorado Springs, El Paso County
Established in the first decade of the Cold War, the Air Force Academy provided the service with a steady supply of officers in a period of rapid expansion of the military’s air arm. In the face of technological advances, including a burgeoning nuclear arsenal, it educated those officers for the increasingly complex demands of military leadership. In addition, the Air Force Academy ranks among the finest examples of modern movement architecture commissioned by Federal agencies during the post-World War II era. Its campus, designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, broke from the traditions of West Point and Annapolis with its architectural vocabulary to become “the first U.S. national shrine to be designed in the modern style,” according to Architectural Forum. In a survey of Federally-built architecture, Ms. Lois Craig declared, “Perhaps no architectural debate over government buildings in the 1950s equaled the discussion about the design of the new U.S. Air Force Academy.”
Grove Street Cemetery
Grove Street, New Haven, New Haven County
Incorporated in 1797, this cemetery represents a milestone in the development of the American cemetery as a distinct institution unto itself. The cemetery association was formed by a group of private citizens intent on creating a dignified and functional burying ground for the entire community. Prior to this in America, providing burial space had been a secondary function undertaken by the civil government, religious institutions, or individual families. Grove Street Cemetery illustrates the evolution of the American cemetery as a distinctive landscape; the rational grid of the eighteenth century, the romanticism of the early nineteenth century, and the lawn-park ideal of the late nineteenth century are all in evidence. In addition, the Egyptian Revival enclosure and entrance gate, the work of the influential architect Henry Austin, is regarded as one of the country’s leading examples of the Egyptian Revival style.
Portland Brownstone Quarries
Brownstone Avenue and Silver Street, Portland, Middlesex County
The Portland Brownstone Quarries were the main source of the distinctive reddish-brown sandstone called “brownstone,” which was used so extensively in building construction during the latter half of the nineteenth century that this period has become known as the “Brownstone Era.” Used for mansions and middle class houses alike, brownstones embodied the prosperous, progressive image of America during that period of national expansion and economic growth. The quarries also are importantly associated with American geologist Paul Dimitri Krynine, who used data collected from the site in a definitive study to determine the geological origin of “redbeds.” While “redbeds” were once thought to indicate only arid, desert-like environments, Krynine, relying on features in the Portland quarries, demonstrated in what is now a classic geological work on their origin that they also formed under warm, humid, tropical conditions.
Samuel Wadsworth Russell House
350 High Street, Middletown, Middlesex County
Nationally significant as the home of the founder of Russell & Company, the legendary nineteenth-century leader in the American China trade, the exceptionally well-preserved Samuel Wadsworth Russell House (1827-1829) is also considered to be the premier domestic example of the Corinthian Greek Revival style in the Northeast. Conceived and executed during the early flowering of a classically derived national esthetic, Ithiel Town’s design for this beautifully proportioned “urban villa” was widely disseminated, fostering the rise of the Greek Revival as the classic American style in the antebellum period. Additional significance is derived from a wealth of associated primary source material that provides insight into Town’s career as one of the country’s first professional architects.
Howard High School
13th and Poplar Streets, Wilmington, New Castle County
Howard High School is associated with a period of social change when the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education found racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. The decision overturned the “separate but equal” doctrine the Court had endorsed in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 that gave legal sanction to Jim Crow. Howard High was the black high school in Belton v. Gebhart (1953), one of five cases combined under the Brown case. In Belton, parents of black children bused to Howard sued to allow their children to attend the white high school (Claymont High School). The Delaware case represented the view of the U.S. Supreme Court that segregation existed outside the South.
New Castle Court House
211 Delaware Street, New Castle, New Castle County
The name of the previously designated National Historic Landmark was officially changed to New Castle Court House, and its nationally significant association with the prosecution of two Quaker abolitionists for violating the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was formally acknowledged. Previously the courthouse had received NHL designation in recognition of its role as the seat of governance in Delaware during the colonial and early statehood eras.
District of Columbia
Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Frederick Douglass Memorial Hall and Founders Library, Howard University
2441 and 2365 6th Street, NW, and 500 Howard Place, Washington
Howard University is nationally significant for the institution’s role in the legal establishment of racially desegregated public education and for its association with two nationally recognized leaders of that fight: Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall. From 1929, Howard Law School became an educational training ground, through the vision of Charles Hamilton Houston, for the development of activist black lawyers dedicated to securing the civil rights of all people of color. Howard University also provided preparation of the legal strategy presented by Thurgood Marshall and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Legal Defense Fund leading to the historic U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) declaring school segregation unconstitutional.
John Philip Sousa, Jr. High School
3650 Ely Place, S.E., Washington
This school is associated with the struggle to desegregate schools in Washington, D.C. and is tied to the landmark case, Bolling v. Sharpe. The school stands as symbol of the lengthy conflict that ultimately led to the racial desegregation of schools by the federal government and marked the beginning of the modern civil rights movement. In 1950, eleven black students were denied admission to the newly constructed (and segregated) Sousa school. This event led to the Supreme Court decision that made “separate but equal” educational systems illegal in the District of Columbia.
811 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington
Completed in 1940, the Lafayette Building served as the headquarters of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). The American industrial mobilization that played a critical role in the Allied victory in World War II would not have occurred without the financial support of the Federal Government. RFC money built 2,300 industrial plants, including many of the showplaces of the wartime “production miracle.” By 1945, it had poured over $22 billion into the war effort and constituted “a fourth branch of the Government,” according to Senator Harry Byrd. The Lafayette Building is also associated with Jesse Jones, leader of the RFC from its creation in 1932 to his departure from government in 1945. In December 1941, Fortune magazine called him “the second most important [man] in Washington.”
United Mine Workers of America Building
900 – 910 F Street, NW, Washington
Beginning in 1937, this building served as the headquarters of the United Mine Workers of America union (UMW) that was associated with the rise of organized labor following the Congressional passage of pro-labor acts in the mid 1930s. Before and after World War II, the UMW was able to negotiate for higher wages, safer working conditions (including the Federal Mine Safety Act in 1952), and the creation of industry-funded health and retirement benefits. From this building, John L. Lewis, oversaw the UMW for more than two decades and founded and presided over the Congress of Industrial Organizations (1937-1940). This federation of unions, funded by the UMW in its formative years, covered the previously unrepresented mass-production workers, a segment of the work force that became the labor movement’s most important constituency during the 1950s and 1960s, when working-class Americans made their largest economic gains.
Address Restricted, Ocala, Marion County
As the Council Site and central location where Seminoles, Black Seminoles, and the U.S. Government met to discuss the terms of President Jackson’s Indian Removal Policy, the events at Fort King represented the escalating tension between these groups which eventually led to the Second Seminole War, the longest and most expensive Indian war in U.S. history. The Seminole Indian leader, Osceola, gained national fame after assassinating the Seminole Removal Agent, Wiley Thompson, at this site. This action, along with the events that took place at Dade Battlefield, marked the beginning of the war. This is the best property directly associated with Osceola’s leadership among his people. Archaeological investigations have confirmed this location as the site of Fort King, which was burned during the Second Seminole War. The site can reveal important information about the events of the conflict, can illustrate the use of forts as instruments of colonization and settlement of the United States, and can improve our understanding of lifeways at military installations of this period.
Hotel Ponce de Leon
74 King Street, St. Augustine, St. Johns County
Hotel Ponce de Leon was the first major commission of the architectural team of John M. Carrère and Thomas Hastings, whose firm designed many significant buildings between 1885 and 1925. Opened in 1888, the hotel was the first large building in the United States to employ newly-developed Portland cement in poured concrete construction. It exemplifies the use of Beaux Arts principles and values in an exotic revival design in the context of the historic Spanish city of St. Augustine, Florida. Several artists of national note, including Louis C. Tiffany, contributed to the building. The hotel was the first of the great luxury winter resort hotels in Florida, and the flagship of Henry M. Flagler’s railroad-hotel-land development empire in Florida. Combined with the national network of railroads, it demonstrates the rise of tourism as a major business enterprise.
Whitehall (Henry M. Flagler House)
1 Whitehall Way, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County
Constructed in 1900-1901, Whitehall is nationally significant as the home of Henry Morrison Flagler, one of the captains of industry and commerce of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He made his fortune during the period immediately after the Civil War, as one of John D. Rockefeller’s two original partners and a founder, in 1870, of Standard Oil Company, the world's first oil monopoly. By the mid-1880s, Flagler’s attention turned to a new challenge, the development of Florida. He developed resorts and towns and extended the railroad which greatly increased tourism and settlement in the state. He endowed the state with schools, churches and hospitals. This monumental private residence clearly illustrated Flagler’s unique position as the foremost citizen of Florida. The property is also nationally significant as an exceptional Neoclassical Revival marble palace of the Gilded Age.
Fort James Jackson
1 Fort Jackson Road, Savannah, Chatham County
Built by the U.S. government between 1808 and 1812, this fort was the defense for the harbor and city of Savannah. It is one of only five masonry defenses remaining of the Second System Seacoast Fortification. Furthermore, Fort Jackson is the only surviving example of a masonry gun battery of that coastal defense system. Fort Jackson was manned by the Confederate Army during the Civil War, and following the fall of nearby Fort Pulaski, it successfully repelled a Union assault on October 1, 1862. The fort is preserved and interpreted through the efforts of the Coastal Heritage Society, based in Savannah.
587 University Place, Atlanta, Fulton County
This Classical Revival mansion, built in 1910, was the home of Alonzo Franklin Herndon and his family. The founder of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company, one of the largest Black insurance companies in the United States, Herndon had been born into slavery but rose to wealth and influence. His life reflects the ideal of the American dream, that anyone can be successful in this country with hard work and determination. Adrienne Herndon, Alonzo’s wife, designed the residence but passed away a few months after its completion. Their son Norris was influential in the family’s enterprises and he succeeded his father in running the Atlanta Life Insurance Company. The Herndon family attained the highest level of Black society during the early twentieth century. Their home illustrates the family’s aspirations and lifestyle, and also represents the culture of wealthy African Americans during the first half of the twentieth century.
Yellowstone National Park, Fremont County
See listing under Wyoming.
Bounded by W. Adams Street, S. Central Avenue, Eisenhower Expressway, and S. Austin Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County
The 135-acre Columbus Park is considered the masterpiece of nationally renowned landscape architect and conservationist Jens Jensen. Jensen is recognized as the creator of Prairie style landscape design, the father of the Midwestern conservation movement, and one of the most significant figures in the history of American landscape architecture. Created between 1912 and 1920, design of this park gave Jensen the fullest opportunity to express his Prairie style and to make available to city dwellers the benefits he believed would be gained through communing with nature. Jensen’s vision for the park was inspired by the site’s natural history and topography. He created features such as berms that were reminiscent of glacial ridges, a meandering lagoon to emulate a prairie river, and waterfalls of stratified stonework to represent prairie bluffs.
14520 River Road, Plano, Kendall County
The Farnsworth House is nationally significant as an example of modern architecture and as an exemplary work of renowned architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. It is one of the most famous examples of modernist domestic architecture and was considered unprecedented in its day. This building is one of the most frequently cited examples of mid-twentieth century attempts to reduce architecture to as few elements as possible, while also increasing the transparency of the building. Since its completion in 1951, the Farnsworth House has been meticulously maintained and restored.
Grant Park Stadium
425 East 14th Street, Chicago, Cook County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. As a result of substantial modifications undertaken to upgrade its facilities, Grant Park Stadium (also known as Soldier Field) no longer retains a substantial amount of its physical materials, design features, and aspects of construction that date from the period when it obtained national significance.
Isidore Heller House
5132 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, Cook County
Begun in 1896, this is the most important surviving example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s quest to design geometric architecture. It illustrates Wright’s transition in style from the influence of his mentor, Louis Sullivan, to the development of the Prairie Style of architecture. It is one of the several important designs that illustrate Wright’s international architectural reputation.
Arthur Heurtley House
318 North Forest Avenue, Oak Park, Cook County
The Heurtley House (1902), widely recognized as a critical work in the history of modern architecture, marks a pivotal point in the early career of Frank Lloyd Wright. It is considered to be the first fully mature Prairie style house; in this house, patterns are established which would appear in the great Prairie style houses. All the fundamental characteristics associated with that style are present. Major spaces are raised well above the surrounding terrain, ceilings echo roof forms, and fireplaces are in the center of the house. The exterior features of the house and the style include deep overhanging eaves, massive central chimneys, broad horizontal groupings of windows, and obvious balconies and terraces. An influential feature of the Heurtley House is the reorganization of the traditional multi-story concept. Wright reversed the spaces that would be expected on the ground floor with those of the upper floor; the living and dining rooms are on the topmost floor.
Nicholas Jarrot Mansion
124 East First Street, Cahokia, St. Clair County
The Nicholas Jarrot Mansion, built between 1807 and 1810 illustrates the western diffusion of early American architecture: the Federal style. Located at the western border of the Northwest Territory, within the French Colonial region of the mid-Mississippi River valley, the design and construction of the Jarrot Mansion is an early and rare example of the Federal style, seated in a region that was detached as a territorial wilderness. As a solid masonry building constructed during the early development of the Northwest Territory, the Jarrot Mansion is an expression of architectural evolution during the early western expansion of the American territories. The mansion signifies an early and individual intent to reach beyond the local building traditions and customs of the provincial region of the mid-Mississippi River valley toward a broader architectural genre.
Lincoln Park Lily Pool
Fullerton Drive between Cannon and Stockton Drives, Chicago, Cook County
Designed by Alfred Caldwell, the Lily Pool is an exquisite hidden garden in Chicago’s Lincoln Park that symbolically celebrates the natural and pre-history of the Midwest. Considered the last great Prairie-style landscape architect of the twentieth century, Caldwell was a disciple of renowned landscape architect and conservationist Jens Jenson and an accomplished planner, architect, teacher, poet and essayist. In addition to Jensen’s influence on his life and work, Caldwell knew and was influenced by internationally acclaimed architects Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe and urban planner Ludwig Hilberseimer. In 1936, Jensen described Caldwell as the Nation’s most “outstanding prospect as a landscape gardener.” The Lily Pool represents the fulfillment of Jensen’s prediction.
S. R. Crown Hall
3360 South State Street, Chicago, Cook County
S. R. Crown Hall (1950-56), located on the campus of the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, is a critically important monument in postwar construction. The building epitomizes "Miesian" modern architecture as well as the International Style, which has long been accepted as one of the twentieth century's most important and widely distributed architectural styles. Crown Hall has national significance because of its close personal and professional association with Mies van der Rohe whose architecture and educational philosophy have had, and continue to have, a profound effect on the course of American architecture.
Allen County Courthouse
715 S. Calhoun Street, Fort Wayne, Allen County
Completed in 1902, the Allen County Courthouse stands as a monument to the progressivism and civic pride of early twentieth century America, and is the embodiment of Beaux Arts architecture popular in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. A collaborative effort of architect Brentwood S. Tolan, artists, and craftsmen, the courthouse represents a rare example of the culmination of classical form, fine art, and applied ornamentation in an American county courthouse. The building’s murals, painted by prominent artists Charles Holloway, Florian Piexotto, and Carl Gutherz are among the earliest and most extensive to have been executed during the Progressive Era.
Auburn Cord Duesenberg Automobile Facility
1600 South Wayne Street, Auburn, Dekalb County The Auburn Cord
Duesenberg Automobile Facility is nationally significant as one of the few remaining examples of an independent specialty automobile company that made hand-assembled rather than mass-produced automobiles. The Art Deco showroom and administration building, the service and new parts department building, and the Cord L-29 building remain as visual reminders of this company’s proud past and achievements in automotive history. Each building represents a different stage in automotive development and construction: from the drafting tables of the initial design stages to the final product display on the showroom floor. Automobiles designed and built here are highly prized around the world.
First Baptist Church
3300 Fairlawn Drive, Columbus, Bartholomew County
A local Columbus business foundation established a program to pay the design fees for local public projects if the client group selected the design firm from a list developed by an independent panel of experts. This patronage program fostered an outstanding design sensibility in the community resulting in private sector construction of additional Modern architecture resources. An outstanding example of the work of distinguished American architect, Harry Mohr Weese, First Baptist Church (1965) is generally considered his best work in Columbus. Weese was the most prolific contributor to the body of Modern architecture that made the city famous. (First Christian Church, Irwin Union Bank and Trust, Mabel McDowell Elementary School, Miller House, and North Christian Church were all also a part of this patronage program or influenced by it. See below.)
First Christian Church
531 Fifth Street, Columbus, Bartholomew County
First Christian Church (1941) is one of the first Modern religious buildings in America and the first Modern building to be constructed in Columbus. Nationally recognized at the time of its construction, it had an impact on church design in the post-World War II era. First Christian Church was one of two churches designed by the firm of Saarinen and Saarinen, consisting of Eliel Saarinen and his son Eero. Saarinen answered questions about the suitability of a Modern design for a religious building by saying: “Our forefathers and we ourselves have been using the dead styles of alien cultures….we have combined them in thousands of different ways until the last drop of expressiveness has been squeezed out…” Many believe that First Christian Church is a synthesis of the father’s and son’s work, and of their independent approaches: Eliel’s focus on materials, craft, and relationship of the building to the user; and Eero’s Modern aesthetic.
Irwin Union Bank and Trust
500 Washington Street, Columbus, Bartholomew County
Irwin Union Bank and Trust (1954) is a highly innovative bank design and an outstanding example of a classic Modernist form, the Miesian glass pavilion. The work of Eero Saarinen, this was possibly the first bank in the United States with glass walls and an open plan. It marked a break with past solutions for banks, and influenced future bank designs.
Mabel McDowell Elementary School
2700 McKinley Avenue, Columbus, Bartholomew County
Mabel McDowell Elementary School (1957-1960) is an excellent representation of the effort in Columbus to improve the quality of life through outstanding design. The building is an early example of Modern architecture in Columbus, and an example of the work of John Carl Warnecke, a leading architect of the twentieth century. The site contains five separate 1-story buildings linked by landscaped courtyards and covered walkways. Four classroom buildings flank the central hub which contains the cafeteria and administration spaces.
Madison Historic District
Bounded by Michigan Road, Craven Street, Madison Country Club, City Boundary and the Ohio River, Madison, Jefferson County
The Madison Historic District contains impressive numbers of significant buildings from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many in the Federal, Greek Revival and Italianate styles. Mansions, row houses and shotgun worker housing represent all socio-economic groups. The range of domestic, commercial, public, religious and industrial buildings reflect small-town America. Remarkably, nineteenth century infrastructure, including culverts, retaining walls, curbs and gutters, bridges, road grades and alignment, survive. The district also includes houses identified with Underground Railroad activities.
Address Restricted, Columbus, Bartholomew County
One of a small number of residences designed by Eero Saarinen, the Miller House (1957) is an important residential representation of the International Style subtype of the Modern Movement. The landscape of Dan Kiley is one of the first and most important Modern residential landscape designs. Building and landscape are fully integrated in this collaboration. The house was commissioned by J. Irwin Miller, the president of the company whose foundation was the catalyst for the development of Columbus as a nationally recognized center of outstanding Modern architecture.
North Christian Church
850 Tipton Lane, Columbus, Bartholomew County
Completed in 1964, Eero Saarinen designed North Christian Church on a hexagonal plan, symbolic of the Star of David. A 192-foot spire supporting a cross rises from this, symbolizing the emergence of Christianity from Judaism. The sanctuary was placed in the center of the building and elevated; seating was around the hexagonal perimeter of the sanctuary to allow members to relate visually to each other during services. The landscape design is an outstanding example of the work of Dan Kiley.
1200 W. 38th Street, Indianapolis, Marion County
Designed by the Olmsted Brothers firm, the Oldfields estate is an exceptional example of a country house and estate landscape. It was constructed by American businessmen and industrialists during the country place era, loosely considered to span the years between 1885 and 1939. American country estates evolved from the Olmsted ideals of creating designed spaces of coherent quality that separate different types of spaces from neighboring spaces with conflicting activities. These projects evolved from the belief that the open rolling terrain of Olmsted’s parks provided a specific, medical antidote to the artificiality, noise and stress of city life. Josiah Kirby Lilly, Jr., Oldfields’ second owner, is nationally significant for his business, philanthropic and humanitarian accomplishments. Whether due to the medical advancements and business practices developed through Eli Lilly and Company, the impact of the grants made by the Lilly Endowment, or the creation of world-class collections, J.K. Lilly, Jr. affected America, as well as the entire world.
Rev. George B. Hitchcock House
63788 567th Lane, Lewis, Cass County
The Hitchcock House is significant for its association with the abolitionist reform movement, and as a link in the network that came to be known as the Underground Railroad. It represents the diversity of localized efforts and the Western extent of their movement. It complements such National Historic Landmark properties as the Milton House in Wisconsin and the Johnson and LeMoyne houses in Pennsylvania. George B. Hitchcock was prominent among the militant antislavery leadership of the Congregation Church mission in Iowa, and it is believed he used his home outside of Lewis to assist in the safe passage of fugitive slaves east and north through southwestern Iowa.
2300 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, Polk County
Terrace Hill (1868) is an exceptional example of the French Second Empire Style identified as a prototype of the style. Designed by one of Chicago’s most important nineteenth century architects, William W. Boyington, Terrace Hill represents a pure, minimally altered, grand scale Second Empire house constructed for domestic use at the height of the style in the United States. Its interiors are among the best preserved for the period. Since 1976, it has served as the residence for Iowa’s governor and a historic house museum.
Labrot and Graham’s Old Oscar Pepper Distillery
7855 McCracken Pike, Versailles, Woodford County
Labrot & Graham's Old Oscar Pepper Distillery is importantly associated with the development of the bourbon industry, an enterprise of national significance centered in Kentucky. As the birthplace of bourbon in the 1830s, this site illustrates the evolution of the trade from the traditional pot still distilling by farmers during the early nineteenth century to the mature and highly specialized industry of the post-Repeal era. The 72-acre site that has been used for the conversion of grain into alcohol since 1812, and its industrial architecture setting stands with few modern intrusions.
Longue Vue House and Gardens
7 Bamboo Road, New Orleans, Orleans Parish
Longue Vue is a stellar example of a Country Place estate in which architecture and landscape architecture are designed to be interrelated, with architects, landscape architect and patron all working closely together over more than two decades. It is the most intact and complete work of leading woman landscape architect Ellen Biddle Shipman. Designed by two of the leaders in the Country Place movement, architects William and Geoffrey Platt, it is one of the few southern examples of this movement.
5487 Louisiana Highway 119, Derry, Natchitoches Parish
Magnolia Plantation is significant in the history of American agriculture as one of the largest and most intact plantation complexes in the southern United States. The site contains a collection of extremely rare slave cabins. Magnolia also retains its cotton pressing and ginning equipment. The late nineteenth century “system” gin is an extremely rare survivor within the region, as is the antebellum screw press. While the c. 1840 wooden screw press represents the early era of cotton production, the system gin represents the remarkable technological improvements made in cotton ginning in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. There is also a plantation store building which reflects the change in agricultural production from slave labor to sharecroppers and day laborers.
4386 Louisiana Highway 494, Natchez, Natchitoches County
Oakland Plantation has national architectural significance as one of the nation’s most complete expressions of therural French Creole building tradition. The architectural period of significance extends from 1818 to the midnineteenth century. It is nationally significant in the history of American agriculture as one of a very limited number of large plantation complexes remaining in the South. In a modified form the plantation system continued to dominate Southern agriculture in the post bellum period and on into the twentieth century. Oakland has a plantation store building which survives to represent an important character defining feature of the post bellum plantation.
U.S. Highway 61 and LA Highway 10, St. Francisville, West Feliciana Parish
While Rosedown’s gardens are nationally significant in their own right, the estate as a tout ensemble - a whole greater than the sum of its parts - is of particular importance. With its “great house” (complete with Grecian wings) at the head of a 660-foot oak allée, its extensive pleasure gardens ornamented with summerhouses, and the remaining archeological resources, Rosedown embodies the lifestyle of the antebellum South’s wealthiest planters in a way very few other surviving properties can. It exhibits important components of the personal world of the great planters; both house and garden survive in their original context. The designed landscapes of the Southern plantation represent an important chapter in the history of design in America. Rosedown’s gardens, in and of themselves, are nationally significant in this respect - for their size, sophistication and overall integrity.
Parker Cleaveland House
75 Federal Street, Brunswick, Cumberland County
Parker Cleaveland, nationally significant for his contributions to the field of mineralogy, resided in this house from 1806 to 1858. A professor at nearby Bowdoin College, he conducted some of the earliest studies of mineralogy in the United States. In 1816, Cleaveland published Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology, the first volume on American mineral species and localities, thereby earning the moniker “Father of American Mineralogy.” This comprehensive work with its clear, concise mineral descriptions and useful classification system, was the only mineralogy textbook in American colleges for decades and set the standard for subsequent works on the subject.
Arsenal Street, Augusta, Kennebeck County
The Kennebec Arsenal is the most intact early nineteenth century munitions depot in the United States. Built between 1828 and 1838, the complex of eight granite buildings occupies a commanding location on the east bank of the Kennebec River and comprises a largely intact and cohesive collection of buildings designed in the Greek Revival and Gothic Revival styles. The arsenal was constructed during a period when a number of munitions depots were being established on the exposed frontiers of the young republic following the War of 1812. The size of this facility was directly related to the Northeast Boundary Controversy, a border dispute that lasted from 1820 until 1842 and almost led to a third war with Great Britain.
138 Congress Street, Portland, Cumberland County
The Portland Observatory is the only known surviving example of a maritime signaling station. Maritime signaling stations once were prominent fixtures along the coast and in important port towns, relaying messages from ship to shore. Visual communication between ship and shore meant that merchants and ship owners could both receive and send messages to their vessels several hours before the vessel reached port. Consequently, owners could learn of problems the vessel might have encountered on its travel, such as damaged cargo. This method of communication also enabled a ship owner to redirect his vessel to another port if the cargo had been sold, or to reserve a berth on the wharves and hire a crew of stevedores to unload and reload the vessel in a timely fashion.
Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge
Near Gorman Road and Foundary Street, Savage, Howard County
This bridge is the sole-surviving example of a revolutionary design in the history of American bridge engineering. This bridge truss configuration was invented and patented by Wendel Bollman, a major figure in nineteenth century civil engineering. It was the first successful all-iron bridge design to be adopted and consistently used (from 1850 to c. 1875) on a railroad. In this case, the railroad was the Baltimore and Ohio, for which Bollman worked twenty-two years, his last ten as Master of Road. Furthermore, this bridge is one of the oldest standing iron railroad bridges in the United States.
J.C. Lore Oyster House
14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County
The J.C. Lore Oyster House (1934) is a substantially unaltered marine industrial building overlooking the Patuxent River at the north end of Solomons Island. While most successful seafood processing plants underwent a series of alterations and additions throughout their operation, the Lore structure is a rare surviving example of a relatively unaltered early-twentieth–century seafood packing plant. The Lore Company was among the first to ship oysters by parcel post. A major supplier of oysters to food store chains, the Lore Company helped to make "Patuxent" brand oysters famous throughout much of the Midwest. The intact original processing equipment significantly adds to the importance of this property.
Rebecca T. Ruark
Dogwood Harbor, Tilghman Island, Talbot County
The Rebecca T. Ruark is the oldest vessel in the skipjack oyster dredging fleet, the last commercial fishing sailing fleet in North America. Of the estimated 2,000 skipjacks built on Chesapeake Bay before World War II, only about 16 survive. The Ruark is the only vessel in the oyster fleet with a sloop hull, and is known as one of the best sailing skipjacks in the fleet. After sinking during a gale in 1999, she was subsequently raised and restored to operation.
Off State Route 574, approximately 4.5 miles southeast of Hollywood, St. Mary’s County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. With the demolition of Resurrection Manor in 2003, this property has lost its ability to convey its historical associations with the past.
44300 Sotterley Lane, Hollywood, St. Mary’s County
Sotterley is significant for the outstanding character of its historic architecture and landscape. The main house is one of two surviving examples of post-in-ground framing in the Chesapeake region. Archaeological evidence of this once dominant building tradition exists, but the original plan and framing at Sotterley provide very rare architectural evidence of this construction method. Beginning in the late 1720s and again in the 1750s, 1760s, 1840s, and 1910s, Sotterley underwent a series of modifications and additions, which bear their own architectural significance. Most notable of these alterations are the decorative framing of the circa 1720s west wing and the installation in the 1760s of a grand Chippendale-style stair and a pair of intricately carved shell alcoves. Just after the turn of the twentieth century, the house, grounds, and associated buildings underwent a significant campaign of restoration according to the tenets of the Colonial Revival movement.
Frederick Ayer Mansion
395 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County
The Ayer Mansion is the only known surviving example of exterior ornamentation designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany and is one of only three Tiffany domestic interiors known to remain in situ. A master of surface ornament and color, Tiffany was a pioneer of the interior design profession. As the “most fashionable purveyor of taste” during America’s Gilded Age, Tiffany created apartments and homes for America’s most influential families, including a White House renovation under President Arthur in 1882.
75 Eastern Point Boulevard, Gloucester, Essex County
Beauport is nationally significant in American material culture as an important early collection of American antiques in distinctive arrangements housed within a unique architectural setting that influenced the appreciation, collection, and interpretation of American material culture, as well as the practice of interior design. This collection and arrangement by nationally-noted antiquarian, collector and interior decorator, Henry Davis Sleeper, was influential in the development of Henry Francis du Pont’s Winterthur and other museum programs. Owned and operated bythe Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities since 1942, Beauport has changed little since Sleeper’s death in 1934.
Cape Ann Light Station
Thacher Island, Rockport, Essex County
The original towers at Cape Ann Light Station were the last to be built under British rule. Cape Ann was the first light station to mark a "dangerous spot" along the coast; prior colonial lighthouses simply marked harbor entrances. Crucially important in the early American coastal trade, the lights stand at a historically pivotal location where this country's maritime transportation network to and from Europe, Canada, and the West Indies, all converged on Massachusetts Bay. The lights are also associated with specific events and reflect important advances in technology and engineering, especially in terms of illumination. The 50-acre site contains 6 contributing resources from the 1861-1932 period of significance.
137 Beacon Street, Boston, Suffolk County
The Gibson House (1859) is nationally significant as a rare surviving example of an intact Victorian row house, which serves as a record of urban American domestic life during the decades spanning from the Civil War to the First World War. Remarkably preserved, its interior survives as a record of upper-middle-class life from the period of the Gibson family’s tenure in the house. Its original interior decorations (1860-1916), along with its collections of family furniture, books, rugs, draperies, paintings, prints, porcelain, decorative objects and utilitarian domestic items, are an important resource for understanding how urban upper-middle-class American households lived in the Victorian era. The importance of the house extends to its architectural interiors, which represents the technological advances being made in row houses at the time.
68 Baker Bridge Road, Lincoln, Middlesex County
Walter Gropius, one of the founders of the Modern Movement in architecture, was acclaimed for his role as teacher and articulator of the modernist philosophy of architecture, design, urban planning and the social responsibility of architecture. His conception and direction of the Bauhaus from 1919 to 1928 garnered a longenduring reputation for the school for teaching methods and for its integration of design, crafts and industrial arts into one all-encompassing modernist vision. The original furnishings of the house include the most important collection of Bauhaus-designed furniture outside of Germany and works of art by leading members of the Modern Movement. Gropius and his wife conceived this house in 1937 as an expression of their personal interpretation of the Modernist philosophy.
Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival
George Carter Road, Becket, Berkshire County
Jacob’s Pillow, a rural Massachusetts farm, was purchased by Ted Shawn in 1931 as a retreat to create the first male dance company in the United States. In 1915, Shawn and his wife Ruth St. Denis had established the first modern dance company in the United States, the Denishawn Dance Company. Shawn’s new company, Ted Shawn and his Men Dancers, was intended to address the limited role of men in dance. Through this company, Shawn created a serious role for male dancers and established an appreciation of men in modern dance. Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival, which grew out of Shawn’s teaching and dance demonstrations, became significant as the first summer dance theater of its size in the United States. Many of dance’s most important choreographers, dancers, and musicians created dance works here that have become part of an international repertoire. Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival has also trained and educated several generations of administrators, dancers and choreographers in theory, history and technique. This property includes theater buildings, studios, cottages, converted houses, barns and support buildings.
Nathan and Mary (Polly) Johnson Properties
17, 19 and 21 Seventh Street, New Bedford, Bristol County
These properties are significant for Frederick Douglass’ connection with them and for the role their longtime owner, Nathan Johnson, played in Douglass’ life, in the antebellum effort to eradicate American slavery, and in assisting slaves escaping from the South. The 21 Seventh Street property was the first home of Frederick Douglass after his 1838 escape from slavery. Douglass’ intellect and temperament surely inclined him toward antislavery work, but Nathan Johnson and New Bedford provided him example and opportunity to become one of the most renowned abolitionists of his time. In addition, the 21 Seventh Street home is documented to havehoused at least one other fugitive slave, and from what is known of Nathan Johnson’s antislavery work it is likely that it, and possibly 17-19 Seventh Street, harbored other fugitive slaves.
Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn Street, Watertown and Cambridge, Middlesex County
The characteristics of rural cemeteries—stone monuments seated within a tranquil retreat with grass lawns, flowers, shrubs and trees—that have become embedded in the American consciousness were born in 1831 at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Boston, Massachusetts. Mount Auburn initiated the great age of American cemeterybuilding—and influenced the design of public parks, monuments, and suburbs. Mount Auburn profoundly reflects nineteenth-century attitudes about death, and had a great influence on cemeteries and was widely imitated. While changes have occurred over the years, Mount Auburn Cemetery’s original design and rural character create a well-preserved cultural landscape that is largely intact as a distinct American design. Within its present 170 acres, Mount Auburn can be explored as a museum with “period rooms,” representing all aspects of American cemetery design and cultural traditions.
34 Butler Road, Quincy, Norfolk County
The Quincy Homestead is a remarkable example of New England architecture and its transformations from the late seventeenth century to the late nineteenth century. The surviving elements of the architecture of the seventeenth century, early and late Georgian period, late Victorian period, and Colonial or Georgian Revival found in the Quincy Homestead provide a unique opportunity to see with remarkable clarity the changing forms and styles and preferences of more than three hundred years of American and New England architecture. The house represents an early use of the gambrel roof in the region and in domestic architecture, and its restoration in 1904 was one of the earliest efforts at restoration of a domestic site in the Boston region by a heritage preservation group.
Revere Beach Reservation
Revere Beach Boulevard, Revere, Suffolk County
Revere Beach is part of the initial components of the country’s first regional landscape system, the Boston Metropolitan Park System. It was designed in the 1890s by Charles Eliot, one of the pioneers of American landscape architecture. Eliot’s plan called for the reclamation of the beach from intense private development, stipulated the relocation of a railroad from the top of the beach and directed the placement of a boulevard and structures for bathing to emphasize the natural curve of the beach. The site provides the best example of Eliot’s philosophy of landscape preservation and social responsibility, which informed the early development of regional planning in this country. Revere Beach was also the first ocean beach in the United States to be acquired for public recreational use.
William Rotch, Jr. House
396 County Street, New Bedford, Bristol County
This was the first house built to a design by Richard Upjohn, one of the most prominent nineteenth century architects in the United States. In addition, it was constructed for the head of the Nation’s premier whaling family in the Nation’s premier whaling town and, after his death, was occupied by one of the most successful whaling agents during the industry’s golden age. This house represents the wealth and status gained from the nationally significant American whaling trade just as the mansions of Newport, Rhode Island, represent the wealth and influence gained by their owners from the late nineteenth century industries of railroading, steel and finance.
William J. Rotch Gothic Cottage
19 Irving Street, New Bedford, Bristol County
The Rotch Cottage is one of the finest Gothic cottages in the United States. Designed in 1845 by Alexander Jackson Davis, the house received immediate national attention through its inclusion in A. J. Downing’s seminal The Architecture of Country Houses (1850). The home is a masterwork of Davis, and is one of the best documented, intact Gothic Revival cottages in America. The property remains in the Rotch family.
Union Oyster House
41-43 Union Street, Boston, Suffolk County
Union Oyster House is both the oldest continuously operated restaurant and the oldest continuously operated oyster bar in the United States. The establishment has hosted numerous famous patrons and is a monument tothe importance of oysters in American culture during the nineteenth century. The building is also a rare surviving example of early eighteenth-century Boston architecture. The Union Oyster House is remarkably intact, retaining its nineteenth-century floor plan and roasting ranges.
At Lake and Siloam Avenues, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County
This site was the prototype for the community form of permanent camp meetings and resorts that were common across the country after the Civil War. An American phenomenon, religious camp meetings were open air revivals which lasted several days. The participants needed a place to stay at the revival site because they were far from home. Wesleyan Grove’s plan and many of its architectural characteristics were emulated by many other camp meetings in the United States. The district includes over 300 contributing resources within its 34 acre area.
Ford Piquette Avenue Plant
411 Piquette Avenue, Detroit, Wayne County
This plant was built for the Ford Motor Company in 1904. This is where the company initially achieved quantity production of technically-advanced, yet inexpensive, automobiles, enabling Ford to become the largest automobile producer in the United States by 1906, and influencing the path of the entire industry. In this plant, the Model T Ford, the most technologically, economically, and culturally significant automobile in American history, was conceived, designed, and first produced. This facility represents Henry Ford’s rise to a preeminent position in the automotive industry, and in American history.
Lincoln Motor Company Plant
6200 West Warren Avenue, Detroit, Wayne County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. The demolition of the property’s contributing resources have compromised its ability to convey its significance.
Rabideau Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp
Off Beltrami County Highway 39, Taylor Township, Beltrami County
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was an important New Deal program that had a national impact on the American landscape. Its work projects included conservation, disaster relief, historic restoration, and national defense. The CCC camps were the key components in the success of the program, creating the mechanism for executing its initiatives and providing a setting for the training and rejuvenation of the program’s enrollees. Rabideau is one of the best surviving examples of a CCC camp representing the program’s focus on forest management and conservation.
Fort St. Pierre Site
Address Restricted, Warren County
Established in 1719, this fort was the main French colonial settlement in the Yazoo Basin of the Mississippi River. It was a point of interaction between the French and Native American tribes in the Lower Mississippi River Valley and was used to exclude English traders from the French sphere of influence. Support for the settlement of St. Pierre was derived from the efforts of John Law who was responsible for the revival of French interest in colonial affairs in the Southeast. The fort was destroyed in an uprising by the Natchez in 1729 and was never resettled. Archeological investigations in the 1970s demonstrated that the site has a high degree of integrity. Occupied for a relatively short period of time, Fort St. Pierre was rapidly destroyed and never re-settled. These circumstances make it a key for dating other sites in the Yazoo Bluffs region and beyond. The site has contributed to the archaeology of the French colonial period, and the demonstrated integrity of its archeological deposits indicates that it can do so in future excavations.
Address Restricted, Monroe County
The Hester Site was a major campsite used by Middle and Late Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic peoples between 9000 and 7000 B.C. The major activity at this site was the manufacture of chipped stone projectile points and tools for hunting and butchering of wild game. In the Early Archaic Period these site activities continued as stone tools used in wood working and processing of wild plant foods were added to the tool kit. Repeated annual occupations created intact stratified deposits which have proven of great significance in documenting stylistic changes in stone projectile points over time. These tools were the keys to understanding the chronology of PaleoIndian and Early Archaic cultural periods over a large area of the Southeastern United States. The site has the potential to yield significant information on how and when the Southeast was settled, lithic technologies of the earliest cultures, and the chronology of distinctive tool types.
Charles McLaran House (Riverview)
514 Second Street South, Columbus, Lowndes County
Built between 1847 and 1853, the Charles McLaran House is an exceptional Greek Revival residence. Riverview’s design, craftsmanship, and construction materials are of the highest order. Riverview’s high degree of integrity is also remarkable and adds to the significance of this property. The interior of the mansion is extraordinary, with its superior and extensive decorative plasterwork, grand oval spiral stair that ascends three floors, fine woodwork, and innovative floor plan. These features have few peers in their stylistic context.
Port Gibson Battle Site
Port Gibson, Claiborne County
The Battle of Port Gibson marked the beginning of the final phase of the Vicksburg Campaign, a complex offensive movement which propelled the Union commander, Major General Ulysses S. Grant, further into national prominence, and positioned the Union for final victory. Their defeat in this engagement demonstrated that the Confederates were unable to defend the Mississippi River line. The Federals secured their beach head, and the way to Vicksburg was open.
Eudora Welty House
1119 Pinehurst Street, Jackson, Hinds County
One of the most influential writers of the twentieth century, Eudora Welty is recognized for her contributions to American literature, especially a unique view of modernism. She lived and wrote all of her prize winning works in this Tudor-style home from 1925 until her death in 2001. For her work Welty received the National Book Award, the Pulitzer Prize, and the National Medal of Freedom, among other honors. She was a primary figure in the Southern literary Renaissance. Known for compelling portraits of life in the rural South while also capturing the complexities of ordinary lives and addressing universal themes, Welty was hugely popular and won widespread critical acclaim. She was the first author to have her works published in the prestigious Library of America series while still alive, thus joining Faulkner, Hawthorne, Melville and Twain. Upon her death, the Welty House, and the accompanying garden Welty cultivated over the years, were donated to the State of Mississippi.
300 North Wharf Street, St. Louis City
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. During flooding of the Mississippi River in August 1993, Inaugural broke loose from its moorings at the Gateway Arch, took on water due to a breech in its hull, and rolled on its side. Submerged since that time, it was determined that it is not feasible to salvage and restore the ship. It will be salvaged for scrap metal and museum exhibition purposes.
Yellowstone National Park, Park County
See listing under Wyoming.
Navesink Light Station
100 Government/Lighthouse Road, Highlands, Monmouth County
From 1828 until 1949, the twin towers of Navesink served as one of the principal lights for guiding ships into New York harbor, then the busiest port in the United States. The station had the distinction of being the first in the United States to test several important lighthouse technologies, including the revolutionary Fresnel lens, the use of mineral oil, and an electric flash bivalve lens. In 1899, the station was the site of the first demonstration of commercial wireless telegraphy in the United States. The fortress-like appearance of the 1862 light station was unique in American lighthouse design, despite the fact that designs had been standardized by the United States Lighthouse Board in the 1850s.
Abel and Mary Nicholson House
121 Fort Elfsborg-Hancocks Bridge Road, Salem, Salem County
This house is a remarkably intact example of Delaware Valley patterned brick architecture, an early Mid-Atlantic building tradition. The essential characteristic of this style is exterior decoration in vitrified brick. Laid as headers, the brick was used to create geometric patterns and sometimes the date of construction and/or the owner’s initials on a gable wall of the house. The Nicholson House features a gable wall with a diamond pattern and the construction date (1722) in patterned brickwork, as well as checkered string courses on the other three walls. As the finest surviving example from the early years of this building tradition, the Nicholson House is as important as the Fairbanks House in Massachusetts, Bacon’s Castle in Virginia, and Drayton Hall in South Carolina (all National Historic Landmarks). These four properties are nationally significant because they illustrate early, regional styles of American architecture.
Borough of Fair Lawn, Bergen County
This community embodies the internationally acclaimed model of community design known as the “Radburn Idea,” on which the three Greenbelt towns of the New Deal, many Federal Housing Administration-insured large-scale rental communities of the 1930s to 1950s, and new towns of the 1960s were based. Designed by plannerarchitects Clarence S. Stein and Henry Wright in 1928-29 as “The Town for the Motor Age,” Radburn’s design principles have influenced generations of community planning. It reflects the efforts of the Regional Planning Association of America to promote social reform and improvement in the housing of moderate income Americans based on the principles of English Garden City planning. Radburn is the most innovative and comprehensive work to result from Stein and Wright’s highly creative, ten-year collaboration. It introduced innovations in subdivision design such as superblock planning, a hierarchical system of roads (including cul-de-sacs/service courts), interplay of spacious interior parks and private gardens, reverse-front house design, separation of pedestrian paths and automobile roads, and inclusion of recreational facilities and a shopping plaza.
½ mile north of the junction of U.S. 180 and S.R. 152, Grant County
During the last third of the nineteenth century, the soldiers at Fort Bayard protected settlers working in the nearby mining districts and participated in the final campaigns of the Apache wars. In 1899, the facility became the Army’s first tuberculosis sanatorium. It was transferred to the United States Public Health Service in 1920, and then to the Veterans Bureau in 1922, when a modern hospital replaced much of the earlier facilities. It continued to serve veterans with pulmonary ailments until 1965.
Dr. Oliver Bronson House and Estate
West of Route 9, Hudson, Columbia County
The Dr. Oliver Bronson House and Estate is nationally significant for its association with architect Alexander Jackson Davis and the early development of the Picturesque movement in America. Modified from its original configuration to Davis’ specifications in 1839, the house, outbuildings, and interrelated landscape are framed to the west by an extensive panorama of the Catskill Mountains and are evocative of the romantic ideals thatcharacterized the period.
Camp Pine Knot
Raquette Lake, Hamilton County
Adirondack Camps had a strong and lasting influence on the design of rustic buildings developed in the national and state park systems during the twentieth century. Established in the late 1870s, this is one of several camps representing an exceptional and highly influential example of Adirondack Camp design. It was designed primarily by William West Durant, an innovator in the field of Adirondack Camp design and one of the promoters of the region. Camp Pine Knot formed the prototype for the decentralized type of Adirondack Camp.
Dutch Reformed Church, Newburgh
132 Grand Street, Newburgh, Orange County
The Dutch Reformed Church is nationally significant as an outstanding, largely intact Greek Revival style church designed by Alexander Jackson Davis. Begun in 1835 and completed in 1837, it is the last extant Greek Revival style church directly attributable to Davis that retains design integrity consistent with the architect’s original intentions. The building is distinguished by an exceptionally bold and skillfully designed composition, featuring a monumental pedimented Ionic portico and dramatically scaled entrance. The church is a potent reminder of the early part of Davis’ career, a time when his gifted hand contributed significantly to the emergence of the Greek Revival style in the United States.
Eagle Island Camp
Eagle Island, Upper Saranac Lake, Franklin County
Eagle Island is one of the several Adirondack Camps that were recognized as nationally significant for their representation as the first and fullest application of a rustic aesthetic in American buildings. It represents the best rustic camp design of William L. Coulter, one of the six major architects known for their prominence and influence in camp design. The property continues as a camping facility, serving as a Girl Scout camp for over 50 years.
335 Route 202, Somers, Westchester County
Built and owned by Hachaliah Bailey, the first American to tour exotic animals for public entertainment, the Elephant Hotel is associated with early American circus history. Beginning with an African elephant named Old Bet, Bailey subsequently added other wild animals to his collection and introduced the traveling “menagerie” as an attraction to the United States. The Elephant Hotel became the meeting place and symbolic center of menagerie promoters and in 1835 the Zoological Institute, a monopoly of menagerie and circus owners, was incorporated at the Elephant Hotel.
Manitoga (Russel Wright House and Studio)
East of New York Route 9D, Garrison, Putnam County
Manitoga is the self-designed home, studio, and landscape of nationally acclaimed American industrial designer Russel Wright. A founding member of the American Society of Industrial Designers, Wright was well-known as the designer of the “American Modern” style in domestic decorative arts (furniture, fabrics, glassware, and tableware). His work was exhibited regularly at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art, and at such venues as the 1939 World’s Fair. Wright’s democratic “good design is for everyone” philosophy is embodied in the 1950 design manifesto, Guide to Easier Living, written with his wife Mary.
84 West Avenue, West Sayville, Suffolk County
Modesty is a classic Long Island Sound shellfish dredging sloop. Although Modesty was built at the end of the age of commercial vessels working under sail and after the peak of the local shellfish industry, she is a rare unaltered example and typical of the hundreds of sloops engaged in the northern oystering and scalloping industry during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Modesty is described a true "south-sider," or sloop from the southern shore of Long Island Sound, and as "the best possible example of the northern oyster sailing dredger," the New York type. It is believed Modesty, which operated as a scallop dredger from 1923 until at least the early 1930s, is the last extant scallop dredger which operated under sail power.
1150 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York County
As a senior at Columbia University’s new Philosophy Hall in 1912, Edwin H. Armstrong worked in the second-floor Hartley Laboratories on his first of several major developments in wireless communication technologies. After graduation the promising young engineer was assigned a small laboratory to continue his work, and eventually became the head of the Hartley Laboratory. Even after a series of inventions made him not only wealthy, but one of the foremost inventors in wireless technology, Armstrong continued to use these second-floor laboratories and office facilities, as well as lecture rooms elsewhere in Philosophy Hall, to advance his work. The last of his major developments was the design of a wide-band frequency modulation (FM) system that achieved unprecedented fidelity and elimination of static. This revolutionary technology was met with resistence from those heavily invested in the well established amplitude modulation (AM) system. Unfortunately, Armstrong’s untimely death in 1954 prevented him from witnessing the eventual widespread dominance of his FM system.
84 West Avenue, West Sayville, Suffolk County
Priscilla is a classic Long Island Sound and Great South Bay oyster dredging sloop. Built in 1888 during the peak of the U.S. oyster industry, she is the oldest and only sailing work boat to survive from the Great South Bay oyster fleet, and is an outstanding representative of the early form of oyster sloop, a type that dates to the 1830s. Priscilla's hull is a typical example of the hundreds of sloops engaged in the northern oyster industry during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and is described as a true "south-sider," that is, a sloop from the southern shore of Long Island Sound. Priscilla worked Long Island Sound for about 70 years.
Rudolph Oyster House
84 West Avenue, West Sayville, Suffolk County
The Rudolph Oyster House (1908) is a substantially unaltered marine industrial building overlooking the Great South Bay on Long Island, New York. While most successful seafood processing plants underwent a series of alterations and additions throughout their operation, the Rudolph structure is a rare surviving example of a relatively unaltered early-twentieth-century seafood packing plant. The Rudolph Oyster House is the only known surviving structure from the Great South Bay "Blue Point" oyster industry dating from the turn of the century. The structure is still located in West Sayville on the water just off Great South Bay, approximately 600 feet from its original site.
Sagamore Lake, Long Lake, Hamilton County
Constructed in 1897, Sagamore Lodge is an outstanding example of a large-scale Adirondack wilderness retreat, a property type that was influential in the development of numerous camps, lodges, organization camps, and state and national parks throughout the country during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sagamore’s architect, William West Durant, is widely regarded as the most important innovator in the evolution of the Adirondack camp property type. Durant was a prominent figure in the development of the Adirondacks as a fashionable resort. Within the Adirondack camp context, Sagamore Lodge is exceptionally significant as one of the most architecturally sophisticated and fully developed examples of its type.
North of State Route 29N, Newcomb, Essex County
An outstanding example of an Adirondack camp, Santanoni Preserve provides insight into the origin of American environmental consciousness. Built within the context of a private preserve, Santanoni contributes to our understanding of the development of wilderness preservation and of public resort development. Adirondack camps influenced the development of environmentally responsive resort facilities in the state and national park systems, and were transitional in the evolution of open informal planning in American residential architecture.
Gerrit Smith Estate
Main and Nelson Streets, Peterboro, Madison County
The Gerrit Smith Estate is significant for its association with Gerrit Smith (1797-1874), a figure of national prominence in politics and social reform movements. Smith’s wealth and numerous business ventures gave him the financial means to fund extensive reform efforts, mostly pertaining to abolition and temperance. Smith engaged in the abolition movement through active involvement in national Anti-Slavery societies, reform through political involvement, the Free Church movement, education reform, and land reform. He openly defied theFugitive Slave Act, providing a widely-recognized safe haven in Peterboro for refugees from enslavement en route to Canada. The estate was also an important gathering place for abolitionists interested in discussing the issues of the day and planning political action.
51-53 Christopher Street, New York, New York County
The Stonewall Inn was the scene of important events that sparked the modern struggle for the civil rights of gay and lesbian Americans. In a pattern of raids and harassment of gay establishments, the New York City police raided the Stonewall Inn on the early morning of June 28, 1969. The reaction of the bar’s patrons and of the neighborhood crowd that assembled in the street was not typical of such raids, however. Instead of quietly dispersing, as police had come to expect, the crowd rioted as arrests of employees and patrons of the Stonewall Inn were made. This raid and the riot that ensued led to demonstrations and conflicts with the police outside the Stonewall Inn, in Christopher Park, and along neighboring streets until July 3, 1969. The nominated site includes the former bar, the park, and the streets where the events occurred. Stonewall is regarded by many as the single most important event that led to the modern gay and lesbian liberation movement. The Stonewall uprising was, as historian Lillian Faderman has written, “the shot heard round the world…crucial because it sounded the rally for the movement.”
Willard Memorial Chapel-Welch Memorial Hall
17 – 19 Nelson Street, Auburn, Cayuga County
With its fixtures, windows, and furnishings executed by the Tiffany Glass and Decorating Company, the chapel is a distinctive and highly intact representation of the company’s work. Louis Comfort Tiffany was among the most important American tastemakers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The chapel interior highlights the early phase of Tiffany’s career and demonstrates his approach to interior design. It is generally considered by historians and decorative arts specialists to represent the last completely intact Tiffany-designed ecclesiastical interior in its original location in the United States.
Bethania Historic District
Bethania, Forsyth County
The area illustrates the agricultural patterns of a rare example of a German, “open field” agricultural village. Bethania is also a significant example of Moravian community planning and development. Bethania is the sole example of an open field agricultural village in the six colonial Moravian settlements of Wachovia. The town of Bethania, as originally laid out in 1759, consisted of twenty-four “residential lots” and an integrated and extensive system of "outlots." Both the outlots and the residential lots were contained within a ”town lot" allocated to Bethania by the Moravian church. This nomination recognizes the national significance of both the town plan and the historical landscape surrounding the residential lots.
Guilford Court House Battlefield
Address Restricted, Guilford County
On March 15, 1781, American Major General Nathanael Greene’s 4,400 continentals and militiamen clashed with 1,900 British professionals, under Lt. General Charles, Earl Cornwallis, near Guilford Court House. Cornwallis was victorious, but lost more than one-fourth of his army, severely compromising his offensive capability. Patriot losses were comparatively lighter and the army retreated in good order. Cornwallis’ pyrrhic victory left the British lacking the requisite strength to pursue Greene. Instead, they marched north into Virginia where a combined Franco-American army compelled Cornwallis’ surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781. The Battle of Guilford Court House was one of the final events that led to ultimate American victory in the Revolutionary War.
Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center
State Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County
The Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center (1960) is of extraordinary national importance as an example of the Park Service=s AMission 66@ program, which transformed the American national park system to meet postwar conditions. The Wright Brothers building was a high profile project for Mission 66, in part because of the recent 50th anniversary of the first flight in 1953. Nevertheless, the outstanding critical acclaim that greeted the building probably took many by surprise. The building became a national showcase for the Mission 66 program and an important factor in legitimizing the use of modern architecture in the national parks. It also launched the firm of Mitchell/Giurgolo, which went on to become one of the most important American architectural firms of the 1960s and 1970s. Numerous publications and surveys on American architecture have remarked on the significance of the Wright Brothers building as a seminal commission for the Mitchell/Giurgola firm.
Frederick A. and Sophia Bagg Bonanza Farm
Off ND 13 on Sect Road 32R15, Mooreton, Richland County
In 1880, according to the Atlantic Monthly, Bonanza farms were “destined to exercise a most potent influence on the production of all food products, and work a revolution in the great economies of the farm.” Bonanza farms, or "farm factories," are significant components of our national agricultural history, representative of the importance of federal land policies, and of technological and scientific advances to American agricultural production, and the impact of American urbanization – concentrated markets for farm products – and transportation development on national settlement patterns. The Bagg Bonanza Farm represents the broad patterns of Bonanza farms, which developed in the great Northwest from the 1880s through the Great Depression.
Adena (Thomas Worthington House)
Adena Road, Chillicothe, Ross County
Adena is an outstanding example of the domestic architecture of Benjamin Henry Latrobe and is one of only three extant American Latrobe houses. Adena derives exceptional significance as the only surviving Latrobe country house. The house was built in 1807 for Thomas Worthington who was instrumental in the statehood efforts of Ohio and who also became one of Ohio’s early governors. It is a model of Latrobe’s domestic architecture and stands today as a monument to his rational and functional planning to accommodate public and private life.
Cedar Point, Sandusky, Erie County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. In recent years the original wings have been demolished, windows have been replaced and faux balconies added. The exterior integrity has been further compromised by the application of synthetic stucco panels. The spatial and visual relationship of the main rotunda and the remaining original wings was compromised by the addition of a ten-story building in the midst of the hotel complex.
Mount Pleasant Historic District
Union Street, between Cemetery and Market Streets, Mount Pleasant, Jefferson County
Mount Pleasant was established in 1803 and is important for the role it played in the antislavery movement and the Underground Railroad. Incorporated in 1814, the town became a center for pork packing and shipping and was especially successful in the milling industry. The prominent Quaker population in Mt. Pleasant preached and practiced its abolitionist views and published antislavery literature, such as Benjamin Lundy's Genius of Universal Emancipation. A station on the Underground Railroad, the town was a refuge for fugitive slaves and a welcome home for free blacks. Local residents built and administered a school for free black children, and in 1848 established a Free Labor Store which sold no products that were produced by slave labor.
Rocket Engine Test Facility
Lewis Research Center, City of Brook Park, Cuyahoga
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. The demolition of the facility has compromised its ability to convey its significance.
401 W. Brooks Street, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Cleveland County
Bizzell Library is significant for its association with the movement to racially desegregate public higher education in the South in the mid-twentieth century and the federal government’s position on eliminating racial segregation within a democratic society. The University played a role in a 1950 U.S. Supreme Court case that challenged the constitutionality of the separate but equal doctrine under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court ruled that separate but equal conditions were unattainable in graduate and professional education. Bizzell Library illustrates the segregated conditions under which an African American student attended the University and the case which defined the South’s stance on segregated education, federal interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, and the African American pursuit of equal education and civil rights.
Columbia River Highway
Hood River, Multnomah, and Wasco Counties
Constructed between 1913 and 1922, Oregon's Columbia River Highway was created to take visitors to the Columbia River Gorge's most breathtaking and beautiful natural wonders and scenic vistas. The Highway is an outstanding example of modern highway development for its pioneering advances in road design, and is the single most important contribution to the fields of civil engineering and landscape architecture by Samuel C. Lancaster. The first scenic highway in the United States, the Columbia River Highway's aesthetic and engineering achievements greatly influenced the design and construction of other scenic highways, including national park roads, in the 1920s and 1930s.
Kam Wah Chung Company Building
John Day City Park, John Day, Grant County
The Kam Wah Chung Company, like other Chinese mercantile and herb stores in the American West, was the cultural, social, labor, and religious center for Chinese immigrants. With its unrivaled collection of herbal medicines, mercantile records, and other artifacts dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this is the best known example of a Chinese mercantile and herb store in the United States representing the Chinese role in the post-Civil War expansion period of the American West. It continues to reflect its long period of use, from the 1870s until 1950, when it was closed and sealed much like a time capsule. The property was restored in the 1970s and reopened as a museum.
Buckingham Friends Meeting House
5684 Lower York Road, Buckingham Township, Bucks County
Built in 1768, Buckingham was the first meeting house to be erected in the symmetrically balanced two-celled or “doubled” form that separated the genders during services and meetings. By the early nineteenth century the Buckingham form was clearly established as a prototype for Friends’ meeting house design throughout the midAtlantic region and in the mid-west. The prototype remained popular for nearly a century. Besides serving as the focal point for religious, social and educational activities for the Quaker community, Buckingham is the focal point for some of the Pennsylvania colony’s earliest settlements spurred on by the promise of religious toleration that was at the heart of William Penn’s “Holy Experiment.”
Bounded by Virginia Avenue, Bigham Street, Woodruff Street, Saw Mill Run Boulevard, and Olympia Road, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County
Begun in 1929, this is an internationally acclaimed model of community design based on Garden City planning, innovative methods of cost analysis, and pioneering efforts to reduce housing construction costs. It was designed by local architects and landscape architects under the supervision of master planner-architects Clarence S. Stein and Henry Wright, as a philanthropic project to provide high-quality housing in a suburban, garden setting for clerical workers. Building upon earlier work at Sunnyside Gardens and Radburn, it was one of the most celebrated and influential projects to result from Stein and Wright’s collaboration and the efforts of the Regional Planning Association of America to promote social reform and improvement in the housing of moderate income Americans in metropolitan areas. Chatham Village influenced the development of design standards used by the Federal Housing Administration to approve large-scale, rental housing in suburban areas for federally-insured mortgages. It also helped shape the design and construction of the first federally-funded public housing projects under the Public Works Administration in the 1930s.
Charles B. Dudley House
802 Lexington Avenue, Altoona, Blair County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. Ownership of the property changed in the early 1990s to an investor eager to create parking for a nearby hospital. Several preservation and heritage groups made attempts to save the house, but the building was eventually demolished.
Emmanuel Episcopal Church
957 W. North Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County
This church, one of the finest later works of architect Henry Hobson Richardson, was erected between 1884 and 1886. After Richardson’s death in 1886, his assistant Frank Alden was called upon to correct defects in two walls of the church; to this end, he designed an adjoining parish house, in harmony with Richardson’s work, that acted as a buttress against one of the walls. Exterior ornamentation of the church is achieved primarily through its detailed brickwork. James Van Trump, Pittsburgh author and architectural historian has written: “the largely unadorned structure has an elemental grandeur, a monumental simplicity…” The simplicity and strength of this building anticipate the development of the American Arts and Crafts movement.
I.N. and Bernardine Hagan House
0.75 mile southwest of SR 2010 and SR 2019, Chalk Hill, Fayette County
The Hagan House is an excellent example of residential design from the last decade of Frank Lloyd Wright’s career. Among Wright’s later house designs utilizing his Usonian ideals, the Hagan House stands out for its excellent integrity of design and setting. While Wright designed many houses during his prolific career, only a few high-end, more customized examples based upon the Usonian model exist. Of these examples, the Hagan House (1956) is a particularly intact, well-maintained, and solidly constructed example executed in native stone, tidewater cypress, and copper. The house stands as an excellent example of residential design from the final decade of Wright’s career. Located not far from Wright’s earlier work, Fallingwater, the Hagans determined they wanted Wright to design their home after visiting their friends, the Kaufmans, owners of Fallingwater.
1703 Conestoga Road, Clear Springs, Chester County
Lightfoot Mill represents an extremely rare archetypal example of a small eighteenth century custom grain mill with its surviving, completely intact, power transmission system. Surveys have not identified any other custom mills in the United States from this period with intact machinery. The basic technology of this mill dates from the mideighteenth century, adapted to make use of several of the automating inventions of the famous American inventor, Oliver Evans, which were appended to the original works. At Lightfoot one can see the impact of automation on traditional milling. Because of its rarity, this mill has been used as the model for reconstructions of other period mills.
North Branch of Cross Creek, 4 kilometers from Avella, Jefferson Township, Washington County
This site contains evidence of some of the earliest human occupations in Eastern North America, and demonstrates that humans have been in the Americas for at least 16,000 years. The site was periodically utilized and re-occupied from the earliest Paleoindian times through the Archaic and Woodland periods by Native American peoples and during the Historic period by European Americans. It has provided one of the longest, if not the actual longest, stratified sequence of cultures in the United States, and evidence for some of the earliest domesticated crops in the northeastern United States. Meadowcroft has revolutionized how archeologists view the peopling of the Western Hemisphere.
Merchants’ Exchange Building
143 South Third Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County
The Philadelphia Merchants’ Exchange Building is nationally significant for its architectural design. This monumental office building was designed by William Strickland (1788-1854) in 1831 and is an exquisite expression of the Greek Revival style. Strickland was considered one of the leading architects of his day and has for many years been recognized as one of the most highly respected architects in the United States. In the Merchants’ Exchange Building, Strickland demonstrated his growth and evolution as an architect as he progressed from copying the Parthenon in the Second Bank to a more creative, elaborate, and expressive design. The Merchants’ Exchange Building is believed by many to be William Strickland’s most successful and innovative design and is a culmination of Greek Revival elements during the height of the style’s popularity.
424 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County
Built as an Italianate-style villa for William Shepard Wetmore, who had retired from the China Trade, Chateau-sur-Mer was home to three generations of the Wetmore family. During the 1870s, celebrated American architect Richard Morris Hunt altered many of the design features and significantly redesigned the house into a Second Empire French-style chateau. Chateau-sur-Mer is a textbook example of the major design trends of the second half of the nineteenth century. With its quintessentially Victorian interiors, the house exemplifies the United States’ adaptation of popular British and European design, and exhibits examples of almost every decorative style popular during the Victorian Era. A prominent building occupied by important architectural and cultural patrons in American life, Chateau-sur-Mer is a case study in the social and architectural evolution of American culture during the last half of the nineteenth century.
John N.A. Griswold House
76 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County
Completed in 1864, this building is a seminal work by the noted American architect Richard Morris Hunt and is considered to be the first example of the mature Stick Style of architecture. It is also nationally significant as the home, since 1916, of the Art Association of Newport, now called the Newport Art Museum and Art Association, one of the oldest continuously operating art associations in the country. Its founding took place during a transitional period in the history of American art, developing out of the art colony movement and the rise of American Impressionism at the turn of the century, and at the same time introducing innovative New York shows to a New England audience.
596 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County
This Newport “cottage” was designed and built between 1888 and 1892 under the direction of a leading American architect, Richard Morris Hunt, as a temple to the arts for the Vanderbilt family’s private use. The house’s French inspired interiors were designed by Jules Allard and Sons of Paris. A virtual showcase of various French styles and built with seemingly endless financial resources, the house was unparalleled in design and opulence in its day. As one of the earliest Beaux Arts houses in America, it influenced the design of architecture thereafter. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Mrs. Alva Vanderbilt, now remarried as Mrs. O.H.P Belmont, immersed herself in the women’s suffrage movement, and her work became nationally recognized. Mrs. Belmont used her opulent Marble House for meetings and gatherings designed to advance the suffrage movement. Today, Marble House is a testament to the architectural genius of Richard Morris Hunt and the spirit of America’s “Gilded Age.”
Charlesfort - Santa Elena Site
Address Restricted, Parris Island USMC Depot, Beaufort County
This archeological site contains the remains of Santa Elena, the first capital of Spanish Florida, founded in 1566. The site also contains the remains of the earlier French settlement, Charlesfort (1562-1563). The Santa Elena Site is significant for its association with the sixteenth-century wars fought between Spain and France for control of the riches of the New World. The site is also significant for its historic archeology, which has revealed the intact nature of the sixteenth-century Spanish colonial town plan.
Mulberry Plantation (James and Mary Boykin Chesnut House)
559 Sumter Highway, Oakley, Berkeley County
Mulberry Plantation is the most important site associated with Mary Boykin Chesnut’s remarkable first hand account of southern society during the Civil War. With her husband, James Chesnut, Jr. - a prominent official in the Confederate government and heir to Mulberry, one of the largest plantations in the state - Mary Chesnut traveled in a circle that included the most influential people of the southern elite. The diary she kept to record her experiences during the war, and later revised with an eye toward publication, is acknowledged by literary scholars of the subject as the most important piece of literature produced by a Confederate author. Historians have also long recognized the journal’s value as a rich source of information concerning the people and events of the war and life in general on the southern home front.
Isaac Franklin Plantation (Fairvue)
US Highway 31E, 4 miles southwest of Gallatin, Sumner County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. Substantial modifications associated with the plantation’s conversion to a golf community have compromised its ability to reflect the grand scale and sense of time and place of an antebellum plantation.
3764 Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis, Shelby County
Elvis Presley is widely regarded as one of the most culturally influential figures of the twentieth century. Graceland was Presley’s primary residence for 20 of his 22-year career, and is the site most associated with his life and achievements. His extraordinary talent as a singer and performer produced unprecedented achievements that remain unparalleled in American and world history. Presley was an influential agent in the cultural revolution that transformed American society and values, helping to erode barriers of race, class, gender, and region. Graceland has been well-maintained and operated as a house museum since 1982.
Nashville Union Station and Trainshed
10th Avenue, South of Broadway, Nashville, Davidson County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. The recent demolition of the trainshed has compromised the structure’s ability to convey its significance in structural design and construction.
116 Fifth Avenue, Nashville, Davidson County
The Ryman Auditorium is nationally significant as the home for country music’s Grand Ole Opry between 1943 and 1974. Synonymous with country music, the Grand Ole Opry’s live shows and radio program greatly influenced the evolution of the style. Grand Ole Opry fostered the dissemination and commercialization of “country music” which emerged in the American South in the 1920s, but became a phenomenon of worldwide appeal. The Ryman Auditorium’s role in the birth and growth of country music is reflected in its popular appellation, the "modern church of country music.”
Sun Record Company/Memphis Recording Service
706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Shelby County
Some of the South’s greatest contributions to American music occurred during the 1950s in a small brick building in Memphis, Tennessee. Here, at Sun Studios, Sam C. Phillips recognized the talent of, and produced commercially successful recordings of, B.B. King, Howlin’ Wolf, Ike Turner, Rufus Thomas, Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Charlie Rich, Roy Orbison, and many others. In the words of Sam Phillips, Memphis was “a meeting of the musics,” a place where all kinds of Southern music could be heard. Out of this emerged the unique American style of music known as rock’n’roll, a blend of African American and white country styles. Sam Phillips and his recording studio were critical in this development.
At the foot of Jackson Street, Port Isabel, Cameron County
This previously designated National Historic Landmark was dedesignated. The vessel was seized by U.S. Marshals and auctioned off to pay accumulated debts. Efforts by preservation groups failed to raise sufficient funds to purchase the ship. The vessel was ultimately purchased by a marine salvage company which began scrapping of the ship in 2000.
Highland Park Shopping District
Preston Road at Mockingbird, Highland Park, Dallas County
Begun in 1931, this shopping complex, designed in the Spanish Colonial Revival style, is focused on a central pedestrian and automobile parking plaza. It represents a building type designed to meet the needs of consumers who were becoming increasingly dependent on the automobile. The provision of off-street parking for some 650 automobiles is the most significant aspect of the shopping center design and gives the complex its prominence in the evolution of this building type. An unusual combination of the community and regional shopping center types, Highland Park Shopping Village’s location in a high-income community made the center an important proving ground for many of the first suburban department and chain stores in Dallas. It represents a pivotal point in twentieth century architecture in the United States, and is an excellent representation of the role of the shopping center in facilitating the decentralization of the commercial core of cities across the country.
2914 North Shoreline Boulevard, Corpus Christi, Nueces County
The aircraft carrier Lexington (CV-16) participated in almost every major naval campaign in the Pacific from 1943 to 1945. As an Essex-class carrier, Lexington also is important for illustrating the development of aircraft carrier design, the refinement of multi-carrier operations, and the integration of aviation as a primary strike weapon in naval strategy. Of two dozen Essex class carriers built during World War II, Lexington is one of four that survive. Each of these are floating museum ships and National Historic Landmarks. These carriers share a common history, but each made its contributions to historical events and the maturing of naval aviation from a doctrine of fleet support to one of primary fleet weapon. The current configuration of Lexington reflects her long service record (1943-1991). Conversions completed in 1955, including the addition of an angled flight deck, have altered the exterior appearance of the vessel. Interior crew and machinery spaces, however, are 90% unchanged from their original appearance and configuration.
Randolph Field Historic District
Randolph Air Force Base, San Antonio, Bexar County
Randolph Field, Texas, played an exceptional role in the development of the air arm of the United States Army. It was conceived and designed as a model airfield for flying training in the mid 1920s for the fledgling Army Air Corps. The completed “Air City” became the site of unique schools for flying training and aviation medicine, as well as a landmark in airfield planning and design. The administrative headquarters at Randolph Field, including the Air Corps Training Center, the Gulf Coast Air Corps Training Center, and the Army Air Forces Central Flying Training Command, were keystones in the organizational structure of the Army Air Corps and the Army Air Forces.
Quarry Visitor Center
U.S. Highway 40, Jensen, Uintah County
Quarry Visitor Center (1958) at Dinosaur National Monument was one of the earliest and most successful examples of the new visitor centers created as part of the National Park Service’s Mission 66 program. It established new standards for visitor center design, and became a unique example of “insitu” interpretation of park resources. The critical and popular acclaim for the building became an affirmation of the entire modern design direction of the Mission 66 program. More than any other early Mission 66 visitor center, the Quarry Visitor Center legitimized modern architectural style for use in national parks. Advanced building technology, efficient materials, and labor saving construction were also showcased by this benchmark project. It was the most powerful and influential early example of how modern construction techniques and architectural styles could be appropriate and successful for national park development.
Rockingham Meeting House
Meeting House Road, Rockingham, Windham County
The Rockingham Meeting House (1787-1801) is a rare eighteenth century New England meetinghouse of the "second period" type, virtually unaltered on the exterior or interior. Its barn-like massing and austere appearance evoke Medieval and Puritan forms, yet it is styled in the Georgian manner to a degree unmatched among surviving New England meetinghouses of its type and period. It is the most intact eighteenth century public building remaining in Vermont, and is a distinctive survivor from the period of settlement by European immigrants when structures built at public expense were employed for both religious and civic purposes.
1611 Harbor Road, Shelburne, Chittenden County
Shelburne Farms (1886-1915) is the most significant and intact property associated with its founders, Dr. William Seward Webb and Lila Osgood Vanderbilt Webb. One of many estate properties built for wealthy American industrialists during the Gilded Age, Shelburne Farms was considered an “ideal country place” for its exemplary model stock farm and horse breeding service, architectural and technological achievements, and scenic landscape. The estate is a nationally significant representative of turn-of-the-century American country estates and model farms. Its buildings and structures are outstanding examples of the Shingle and Queen Anne architectural styles. In addition, it architecture and landscape architecture represent significant achievements by both architect Robert Henderson Robertson, and landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr.
Socialist Labor Party Hall
46 Granite Street, Barre, Washington County
The Socialist Labor Party Hall (1900) is significant for its association with socialist and anarchist politics, labor organizations, and Italian immigrant heritage in the early twentieth century. Anarchists, socialists, and union leaders debated the future direction of the American labor movement here. The building embodies this radical heritage and the strength of the union movement.
New Kent School and George W. Watkins School
11825 and 6501 New Kent Highway, New Kent and Quinton, New Kent County
These two New Kent County schools are associated with the most important desegregation Supreme Court decision since Brown v. Board in 1954. In Green v. New Kent County (1968) the court made school districts responsible for ensuring that segregated educational systems were eliminated. Less well known than the Brown decision, Green is vital to the story because it established the factors by which school districts could demonstrate that segregation had been dismantled. It was here that the Supreme Court changed the focus from desegregation to integration.
Petersburg Breakthrough Battlefield
Duncan and Boydton Plank Roads, Petersburg vicinity, Dinwiddie County
This battlefield landscape (including the Union staging area and attack corridors, and the Confederate earthworks) represents a key historic resource associated with the end of the Civil War. For nearly nine months of stalemate, heavily built-up Confederate earthworks south of Petersburg kept General Grant’s Union forces from capturing the Confederate Capital at Richmond. On April 2, 1865, Union forces launched a pre-dawn assault on this portion of the Confederate line and broke through those earthworks. Having lost control of the last transportation routes supplying Petersburg and, ultimately, Richmond, General Lee was forced to order the evacuation of both cities that evening, initiating a series of events that led to his surrender one week later at Appomattox Court House.
U.S. Route 15, Clarksville, Mecklenburg County
Prestwould is among the most intact, and best documented, late eighteenth century plantation complexes surviving in Virginia. As such, it enhances our knowledge of post-revolutionary Virginia plantations and presages the forms of the cotton plantations that would be established in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Deep South states by the 1820s. Prestwould retains more of the diverse outbuildings that were a common aspect of Southern plantations than any other Virginia plantation, including possibly the oldest extant frame slave dwelling in the American South. No other eighteenth century plantation in the upper South retains the wide assemblage of outbuildings found at Prestwould, including an office, plantation store, slave house, loom house/quarter, smoke house, meat house, and summerhouse.
George Washington Boyhood Home Site
237 King’s Highway, Fredericksburg, Stafford County
Known locally as Ferry Farm, this site was the principal home of George Washington from when he was six until he was twenty-two, when he moved to Mount Vernon. The landscape of Ferry Farm illustrates the cultural context in which Washington’s ideas about the political, economic, and social order began to take shape, and in which his character and ambitions began to develop. Ferry Farm is also the setting for some of the most enduring and familiar stories about Washington’s youth. As chronicled by Parson Weems, the story of Washington and the cherry tree and the phrase “I cannot tell a lie” are an immortal part of our national ideology and a fundamental part of our national culture. The site contains archaeological resources that have yielded important new information about the material circumstances of Washington’s life, and have demonstrated potential to yield data that will affect the scholarly understanding of Washington’s early years.
302 6th Avenue South, Seattle, King County
Located at the core of Seattle's traditional Nichonmachi, or Japantown, the Panama Hotel provided temporary lodgings for Japanese workers who worked in agricultural and rural areas. Japantowns provided enclaves of safety and familiar surroundings to newly-arrived immigrants. The Panama Hotel houses the Hiashidate Yu, a Japanese-style bathhouse, in the hotel's basement. Bathing was a valued tradition in Japan; it was among the most significant traditional cultural practices brought to the United States by Japanese immigrants. Built in 1910, the Panama Hotel was designed by Sabro Ozasa, one of the few Japanese American architects at the time and the first Japanese architect to practice in Seattle.
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops
300 East Martin Street, Martinsburg, Berkeley County
The shops are a unique example of innovative nineteenth-century engineering and industrial architecture. In particular, the roundhouse is supported by an early cast-iron framing system devised by renowned railroad engineer Albert Fink, and the two auxiliary shop buildings are among the B&O railroad’s most significant remaining structures from the post-Civil War period. The shops were also the center of a social uprising known as the Great Railway Strike of 1877, a pivotal episode in American labor history that marked the beginning of a new age of industrial conflict and change and for many years afterward spawned debate about American industry and the plight of its workers. During the strike that began at the Martinsburg shops, railroad workers across the country spontaneously responded to wage reductions brought about by the economic downturn of the early 1870s. The Martinsburg Shops are the most intact railroad facility associated with the strike.
First Unitarian Society Meeting House
900 University Bay Drive, Shorewood Hills, Dane County
Completed in 1952, this building is an internationally recognized premier example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s late Usonian architecture, which is unusual for its nonresidential application. “Usonian” refers to Wright’s term for an artistic house of low cost for average Americans. Considered a highly personal expression of Wright’s own religious faith, it exemplifies national trends in post World War II American culture for its suburban location and modernist design.
Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House
441 Toepfer Avenue, Madison, Dane County
Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and built in 1937, the Jacobs House was the first of many houses which Wright termed “Usonian.” This inaugural version is an outstanding example of Wright’s efforts to design moderately priced, yet thoroughly aesthetic dwellings for middle income families. These Usonian homes represented a significant style that added to Wright’s reputation as perhaps the pre-eminent twentieth century American architect. The house retains a high degree of integrity with updates completed only to the kitchen appliances, the heating unit, the electrical system, and the roof that was covered with rubber membranes.
Herbert and Katherine Jacobs Second House
3995 Shawn Trail, Madison, Dane County
The Jacobs House is the only solar house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Named the “Solar Hemicycle” by Wright, the house features a gradually curving house plan (or hemicycle), the use of circles for rooms, a semicircular fireplace, interior round plunge and garden pools, and southern glass walls. A berm protected the house from north winds and encouraged south winds to lift over the house. Developed three decades before the energy crisis of the 1970s, the house was an instructive attempt to develop a ‘low-energy’ architecture to obtain maximum solar heat and protection from northern winds. The Jacobs house retains the overall character of a solar hemicycle form of home even though the owner has completed some alterations and additions including the mechanical systems, interior walls, skylights, and rebuilding the glass wall for better insulation.
Milwaukee City Hall
200 E. Wells Street, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County
Milwaukee City Hall is nationally significant as the most outstanding extant example of German Renaissance Revival architecture in the country and for its central role in the history of Socialism in the United States prior to World War I. The building also has symbolic value as the “capitol building” of the city most associated with German immigrant culture in the United States. One of the largest city halls in the country, with a Common Council Chamber that likewise eclipses in size that of larger cities, Milwaukee City Hall is unique in its architecture.
Silver Mound Archeological District
Northeast of STH 95, Alma Center and Hixton, Jackson County
Within the upper midwest region, Silver Mound quickly became a critical resource for the Earliest Americans who were reliant upon stone tools for their survival. Archeological evidence demonstrates Paleoindian practice of locating and using easily accessible, high quality stone tools. The near pristine condition of archeological resources across most of Silver Mound is due to sources of disturbance restricted to the few logging skid trails, cultivation of the extreme southern portion of the mound, excavation of ten historic silver prospecting pits, and the limited scope of prior archeological excavation.
S42 W31610 Depot Road and W 314 S4151 State Highway 83, Town of Genesee, Waukesha County
As America's most famous theatrical couple, Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne garnered an international reputation for their versatile and accomplished work in Broadway productions, one sound film, and several television productions. Lunt and Fontanne exerted a profound influence on twentieth-century American theater. Throughout their careers as the “first family” of the American theater, they used their home as a creative hearth and quiet refuge for themselves and a long list of theater friends, including Noel Coward, Helen Hayes, Laurence Olivier, and Vivien Leigh. Their house became a stage for their performances as designed by Alfred Lunt. The well preserved interiors of Ten Chimneys are like a stage set and reflect the couple’s profession.
University of Wisconsin Dairy Barn
1915 Linden Drive, Madison, Dane County
This dairy housed the early twentieth century “single grain” experiment that challenged prevailing ideas about nutrition. The results led to the discovery of vitamins which launched the new science of nutrition during the twentieth century, and called into question the paradigm regarding the “chemical” model of nutrition. This experiment also demonstrated the utility of using animal subjects in nutritional trials, leading to the wider use of laboratory animals in experiments.
Wisconsin State Capitol
Capitol Square, Madison, Dane County
The Wisconsin State Capitol (1917) is nationally significant as an excellent example of Renaissance Revival architecture, as interpreted through American Beaux-Arts sensibilities, an aesthetic that spanned from the late nineteenth into the early twentieth century. It also represents a national movement to construct monumental state capitols patterned after the National Capitol in Washington. It is one of architect George B. Post’s best buildings and one of the few remaining by him. The building’s architectural vocabulary was derived from buildings of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, yet the classically derived iconography has been given regional significance.
Yellowstone National Park, Park and Teton Counties
Fort Yellowstone is significant for its association with the military administration of Yellowstone National Park, which developed principles and policies that influenced the emerging conservation and national park movements in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The fort served as headquarters of the U.S. Army during its administration of the park from 1886-1918 and represented the military’s longest and most extensive presence in the national parks. Military commanders promulgated rules and regulations that expressed a conservation philosophy, defined the nature, characteristics, and management of national parks, and were influential in the subsequent establishment of the National Park System. Fort Yellowstone’s typical western military post, with parade ground, quarters, and support structures retains a remarkable degree of integrity from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Jackson Lake Lodge
Grand Teton National Park, Teton County
Gilbert Stanley Underwood, perhaps the most prominent and influential architect in the history of the National Park Service, designed Jackson Lake Lodge in Grand Teton National Park at the end of a career that included the designs for the rustic lodges at Bryce and Zion, the Ahwahnee Lodge in Yosemite, the Grand Canyon Lodge, and his most famous federal building, the State Department in Washington, D.C. Upon completion in 1955, the lodge was an influential example of the application of modern construction methods and the Modern Movement style within the national parks. It was the design precursor for the Mission 66 program of visitor center construction, which transformed the National Park System during the postwar years.
Murie Ranch Historic District
½ mile southwest of Grand Teton Headquarters, Moose, Teton County
Murie Ranch is the most important property associated with Adolph, Olaus, and Margaret Murie, whose studies and advocacy changed the way the federal government and scientific community study and manage natural lands and their wildlife populations. The Muries supported an ecological approach to wildlife management which considers all the organisms in a biotic community to be important for their interaction with each other. Their concern that human intervention in the natural environment should be minimal, led to the establishment of national Wilderness areas. The Muries placed a strong emphasis on public education to create support for protection of natural areas and were influential in the creation of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. They carried out important baseline studies of major American mammals such as grizzlies, wolves, elk and coyotes, examining them as part of their ecology rather than as isolated organisms, and providing a foundation for their study and management today.
Union Pacific Railroad Depot
121 West 15th Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County
The Union Pacific Railroad Depot is the last of the grand nineteenth-century depots remaining on the transcontinental railroad. It formed a strategic point along the Union Pacific Railroad, America’s first transcontinental rail line, and was easily the Union Pacific’s grandest facility west of its starting point at Council Bluffs. In addition, the depot is one of the best articulated examples of the Richardsonian Romanesque style in the West; it was designed by Henry Van Brunt, one of America’s most distinguished architects, at a pivotal point in his practice.
Last updated: June 28, 2022