Woodland Time Period

Woodland People at Russell Cave
Woodland Band Cooking After A Long Day Of Work

Billy Mack Steele


In Woodland times in the Southeast, settled village life grew more important as agriculture and trade with people to the north allowed more time for refinement of political and ceremonial life. The inhabitants of Russell Cave, while retaining many of the characteristics of Archaic life, were influenced by the region's religious and political developments. Significant material changes included the introduction of pottery and the bow and arrow.

Animal Effigy
What Kind of Animal Effigy Could This Be? Email Us With Your Answer!


Trade contacts undoubtedly accounted for much of the change, but some archeologists believe that these technologies indicate the arrival of new people in the area. Domestic artifacts from the early Woodland, including the first evidence of gardening, suggest renewed use of the cave as at least a semi-permanent domicile. Later in the period the cave was used mostly as a winter hunting camp when river villages dispersed into more efficient smaller groups at the onset of cold weather.

Last updated: April 14, 2015

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

3729 County Road 98
Bridgeport, AL 35740


(256) 495-2672

Contact Us