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Pipestone, Minnesota

Please note that this text-only version includes approximately 50 pages and may take up to 15 minutes to print. It is provided for ease of reading and printing if you wish to bring numerous pages of this itinerary with you on a trip. By clicking on one of these links, you may go directly to a particular text-only section:

Welcome Letter

Essay on Pipestone County History

Essay on Downtown Revitalization
Essay on Pipestone Rock
List of Sites
Main Map (printer friendly map, you will need to print map pages separately)
Begin the Tour
Learn More




The National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places, the Pipestone Heritage Preservation Commission, Pipestone County Museum, Jasper Area Historical Society, Pipestone National Monument, the Minnesota State Historic Preservation Office, the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO), and the National Alliance of Preservation Commissions (NAPC) extend their invitation to you to explore Pipestone, Minnesota, featuring historic places in Pipestone County. This area, located in the south west corner of Minnesota, reflects a rich history of American Indian quarrying, prosperity brought by the railroad and mining enterprises, and a distinctive natural landscape. This latest National Register of Historic Places Travel itinerary highlights 30 historic places that illustrate the history of this extraordinary region, including architecturally stunning buildings constructed with beautiful local red stone, exemplary civic buildings, and land still sacred to American Indians. The importance of the city of Pipestone was recently recognized by the Preservation Alliance of Minnesota in May 2001 when it was designated as one of the ten most endangered historic properties in the state.

The city and county of Pipestone are named after the soft red stone called catlinite or pipestone, which was essential to the area's development. American Indians quarried in the beds of red-colored claystone and shale in the general vicinity of what is today the Pipestone National Monument, since 1200 A.D. The claystone, soft and easily carved, was used to make the ceremonial pipes which were an integral part of American Indian religious and civic ceremonies. The French were the first Europeans to explore Minnesota and record descriptions of the red stone found in pipes and other items the American Indians traded. The region passed from French to American control in 1803 with the sale of the Louisiana Territory, and Lewis and Clark noted the pipestone quarry in their journals detailing their exploration of the American west. Fur trader Philander Prescott wrote another account of the area in 1831. Five years later, artist and writer George Catlin traveled through the region. He sketched the landscape surrounding the quarries, recorded local Sioux legends, and collected stone samples. Catlin's sketches and accounts interested many others in the site. The famous American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, was inspired to write of the region in his well known poem, "The Song of Hiawatha" (completed in 1855). The city of Pipestone, Minnesota, county seat of Pipestone County, was first established in 1873 by Charles Bennet and David Sweet.

This travel itinerary features all historic sites in Pipestone County listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Pipestone National Monument, created by an act of Congress in 1937, preserves the mile-long quarry line for continued use by members of all American Indian tribes and nations in its natural prairie setting. Numerous buildings constructed with local Sioux quartzite contribute to the rich architectural heritage of the Pipestone Commercial Historic District. Pipestone City Hall, one of the most architecturally distinctive buildings in the district, is today the Pipestone County Museum. Sandstone relief sculptures, often called gargoyles, enliven the Moore Block, constructed in 1896. The Syndicate Block occupies a very prominent corner within the Pipestone Commercial Historic District and is the largest and oldest building constructed of Sioux quartzite within the district. Once housing the post office and a meat market (1910-1964), the Syndicate Block is an outstanding example of Pipestone's beautifully crafted buildings. The Calumet Hotel, a three-story Sioux quartzite building constructed in 1888, provided space for both the hotel and the First National Bank. Its light pink quartzite exterior, mined in the quarries near Jasper, Minnesota, contrasts with the darker red stone that dominates the architecture of Pipestone. The Ihlen Mercantile Company, constructed in 1885 by John Olson, was the first business establishment in Ihlen. In the community of Jasper, just 12 miles southwest of Pipestone, the streetscape is characterized by the prominent use of Jasper Sioux quartzite. The John Rowe House, a simple bungalow like those found across the country, is unusual because it is sheathed in locally quarried stone. The nearby Jasper Stone Company and Quarry, still in operation, provides stone that is greatly sought after still because of its hardness, elegance and permanent color.

Pipestone, Minnesota, offers numerous ways to discover the historic places that played important roles in Pipestone's past. Each property features a brief description of the place's significance, color, and where available, historic photographs, and public accessibility information. At the bottom of each page the visitor will find a navigation bar containing links to three essays that explain more about Pipestone County History, Downtown Revitalization, and Pipestone: The Rock. These essays provide historic background, or "contexts," for many of the places included in the itinerary. The itinerary can be viewed online, or printed out if you plan to visit Pipestone, Minnesota, in person.

Created through a partnership between the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places, the Pipestone Heritage Preservation Commission, Pipestone County Museum, Jasper Area Historical Society, Pipestone National Monument, the Minnesota State Historic Preservation Office, NCSHPO, and NAPC, Pipestone, Minnesota is an example of a new and exciting cooperative project. As part of the Department of the Interior's strategy to revitalize communities by promoting public awareness of history and encouraging tourists to visit historic places throughout the nation, the National Register of Historic Places is cooperating with communities, regions and Heritage Areas throughout the United States to create online travel itineraries. Using places listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the itineraries help potential visitors plan their next trip by highlighting the amazing diversity of the country's historic places and supplying accessibility information for each featured site. In the Learn More section, the itineraries link to regional and local web sites that provide visitors with further information regarding cultural events, special activities, lodging and dining possibilities as well as histories of the region, should they want to explore further.

Pipestone, Minnesota is the ninth of more than 30 organizations working directly with the National Register of Historic Places to create travel itineraries. Additional itineraries will debut online in the future. The National Register of Historic Places, the Pipestone Heritage Preservation Commission, Pipestone County Museum, Jasper Area Historical Society and Pipestone National Monument hope you enjoy this virtual travel itinerary of Pipestone's historic places. If you have comments or questions please click on the provided e-mail address, "comments or questions" located at the bottom of this page.

Welcome Letter

Dear Internet Browser:

Hello and welcome to Pipestone. If you will take the time to stop and explore our wonderful community, you will discover a prairie gem, rich in culture and history.

Pipestone has the distinction of having one of Minnesota's largest historic districts, with many beautiful quartzite buildings, all listed on the National Register of Historic Places. We also have one of the two Federal National Monuments in Minnesota, which is a "must see" when you visit. American Indians still quarry the Red Pipestone and visitors are encouraged to watch live demonstrations of pipes and crafts being carved. But no visit to the Monument is complete without a walk through the Coteau Prairie which includes a view of the Winnewissa Falls.

We are a community whose residents not only preserve the past, but in many ways live it. Locals turn out in force to participate in our annual Longfellow's legendary "Song of Hiawatha" pageant which is held the last two weekends in July and the first weekend of August. This production has thrilled young and old alike for over 50 years. Other exciting events celebrated include the Pipestone Original Indian Community Pow Wow held in July and the Pow Wow/Blessing of the Quarries enacted in August. Then the Civil War Days encampment and mock battles is held every other year. For the history buffs or just the curious, a stop at the County Historical Museum to see first hand the wealth of history artfully preserved and displayed is a treat.

An evening at the theater is most relaxing and enjoyable at Pipestone's own Performing Arts Center. Entertainment is offered to appeal to all ages, from classic to country folk to community theater.

We also offer fine dining at our local restaurants, as well as rustic overnight accommodations at the Historic Calumet Inn. Here your hotel room is, as it was, in the decor of our historic past.

As for recreation, we offer the beautiful modern Ewert Recreation Center, our new Family Aquatic Center, and golf at our nine-hole course.

Unlike most "tourist stops", Pipestone has not lost its charm and affordability. We are friendly and we hope that when you stop by that you will enjoy your stay, as well as our community, as much as we do.

I have only touched on some of the "Highlight" features and events that we offer. For a more detailed overview of Pipestone, I invite you to browse our website at www.pipestoneminnesota.com, better yet, put us on your vacation itinerary.

(Welcome Friend)

Respectfully Yours,

Darrel Tinklenberg

Pipestone County History

"After riding another fifteen miles across the trackless, treeless, boundless expanse of bare-brown, desolate, lonesome prairie, we arrived at the embryo town of Pipestone, its one little lone house barely visible in the deepening twilight."-Mrs. J. M. Bull, in a letter printed in the Pipestone County Star, June 22, 1916, reminiscing about life during Pipestone's first years of settlement.

The town of Pipestone, Minnesota, possesses a rich historic legacy as a transportation and quarrying center. Noted for its architecture constructed of locally quarried Sioux quartzite and catlinite, Pipestone stands as a vivid reminder of a time when Minnesota's expanding western frontier entered the sacred land of the red pipestone. Visitors to Pipestone will have a chance to witness the town's interesting architecture, as well as the nearby pipestone quarries and surrounding communities. From the earliest American Indian settlements up to the present, the history of Pipestone is one where the clashing of cultures produced a town created from the sacred earth. The surrounding area in Pipestone County is also rich in history, and the neighboring town of Jasper stands today as a reminder that Pipestone did not possess a monopoly on quarrying and railroad transportation.

American Indian Settlement: According to A History of Pipestone County, produced by the Pipestone County Historical Society in 1984, the first evidence of human occupation of southwest Minnesota dates to 8000 B.C., following the Pleistocene epoch of earth's last great ice age. Hunters equipped with stone-tipped spears hunted big game in the area, such as the mammoth and a very large species of bison, also extinct. A large spearhead (Clovis point), one of the oldest artifacts in Minnesota, was discovered in Pipestone County. The first petroglyphs (rock drawings) were created about 2000 BC in the area; some were found at the Pipestone quarries. Around 200 BC the Fox Lake Culture had emerged in the Pipestone area. They left behind mounds and pottery samples, and used the bow and arrow. Clay pots, dating back to 200 BC, demonstrate that the Fox Lake American Indians possessed a sophisticated culture. The Great Oasis Culture followed the Fox Lake people; these people lived in the area from 900 to 1400 AD The Oasis Culture is believed to be the first to make use of the pipestone from the quarries. They created carved tablets inscribed with figures resembling crosses as well as pipes from the stone of the quarries. Dwelling in thatch houses, there is little evidence that the Great Oasis Culture practiced much agriculture, although members in northeastern Iowa are thought to have cultivated corn. These people were replaced by the Oto and Iowa people, descendants of the Mississippian people known as the Oyote. In the 1600s and 1700s, the Dakota migrated to the area, and among them were the Yankton Dakota, a part of the powerful Dakota or Sioux Nation, who settled near the location of the present-day town, and utilized the soft red stone, called pipestone.

European and American Exploration and the Founding of Pipestone: The French were the first Europeans to explore Minnesota. The Groselliers and Radisson, Father Louis Hennepin, Baron LaHonton and others left accounts of their journeys as well as descriptions of the red stone found in pipes and other items American Indians traded. The region passed from French to American control in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. With the 1814 Treaty of Ghent clarifying the boundary between British North America (present-day Canada) and the United States of America, large areas of the American west became part of the United States. The famous Lewis and Clark expedition traveled through the area soon after. Lewis and Clark noted the pipestone quarry in their journals. Fur trader Philander Prescott wrote another account of the area in 1831. Five years later, the artist and writer George Catlin traveled through the region. He sketched the landscape surrounding the quarries, and this drew general interest in the site.

Pipestone County was established in 1857, but it was still many years before European-American settlers came to live in the county. The region had been visited by explorers and traders, but settlers stayed away, considering the county "Indian territory," until well after the Civil War. In 1837 the United States government negotiated treaties with the Sioux and the Ojibwa, who held title to the entire Minnesota region, to give up lands in the triangle bounded by the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers and by a line drawn eastward from the mouth of the Crow Wing River. As soon as the treaty was signed, lumbermen moved into the region, and settlements rapidly grew up at Stillwater and St. Paul. Further treaties with the American Indians, combined with the growing might and population of the United States, eventually opened up the rest of Minnesota for settlement. Alarmed at the number of settlers entering the region, the Sioux rose in August of 1862, which resulted in nearly all the Sioux being expelled from the State. During the 38 day war, 500-800 American settlers and an unknown number of Sioux were killed. After this war, immigration grew in the western Minnesota. The first Pipestone County survey occurred in 1871, but the surveyors neglected to mark the Sioux reservation on the drawing of the land that was later named Sweet Township. The town of Pipestone, Minnesota, county seat of Pipestone County, was first platted from 1873 to 1874, and finally incorporated on February 1, 1891. Two individuals, Charles H. Bennett and Daniel E. Sweet were instrumental in the founding of Pipestone. In April 1873, Sweet surveyed the 20-block townsite in Section 12 of the township which was later to be named Sweet. The town itself was located near the center of the county, a mile south of the quarries where the red pipestone is found, and for which both the town and county are named.

Bennett, born in Union town, Michigan, in 1846, served four years in the Civil War and acquired a pharmacist's education by working in pharmacies in the East. He lived for a while in Sioux City, Iowa, before it had a railroad, and built a thriving drugstore business in Le Mars, Iowa, before coming to Pipestone in 1873. Bennett used his own capital and all he could borrow in efforts to develop the community. In 1883 he persuaded the Close Brothers, William and Frederick, two Englishmen, to settle in Pipestone. The Close Brothers advertised the bountiful landscape in circulars distributed throughout the Northeast and England, promoting the rich black soil, civilized nature of the country, and the paradise which awaited the hopeful immigrant. The English land-speculating brothers did not mention the severe weather, devastating insect pests and the treeless landscape, which had earlier prohibited settlement. The selective nature of the ads helped to lure settlers, and with the increased settlement the railroads arrived. Later two more Close brothers, John and James, arrived, and along with S. H. Graves, they formed the Close Brothers Company. Through connections with wealthy Englishmen, they were able to buy large amounts of land in southwestern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa, forming one of the largest land companies in the region.

Railroads, Quarries and the Growth of the Town: The plotting of the townsite in 1876 did not result in the immediate growth of the town. A rush for land began in anticipation of railroad construction after 1878. On Thanksgiving day, 1879, the first train arrived in Pipestone. By 1890, the town possessed four different rail lines and became the transportation and shipping hub of southwestern Minnesota. In 1879 the Minnesota and Black Hills branch of the Sioux City and St. Paul Railroad was constructed from Heron Lake in Jackson County to Woodstock. In 1881 this line was extended to Pipestone. The nearby towns of Ruthton, Holland, and Ihlen were developed in 1888 in anticipation of the 1889 construction of the Willmar and Sioux Falls branch of the Great Northern Railroad. The town of Jasper was also founded in 1888 by several Pipestone capitalists interested in quarry development.

Railroad lines brought many different businesses and people to the growing town. With 20 trains entering the town each day, Pipestone thrived. The increased rail service brought many positive aspects to life in Pipestone, but it also brought increased tensions, as fuel sources were scarce in the flat plains and the railroads monopolized the small coal supply. In 1879, 22 businesses were operating in Pipestone, and in just one year the number jumped to 53. Three physicians were in residence by 1879. Over the next 20 years Pipestone became a real "boom town" and it was then that the buildings in the Pipestone Commercial Historic District were constructed. Masons used locally quarried stone to build these lasting monuments to their craft. The railroad brought access to outside culture, and Pipestone even boasted the Ferris Grand Opera House in the Ferris Grand Block Building built in 1898. Not all changes were positive, though, as monopolies existed concerning the use of grain elevators, pooling and freight costs. Farmers' cooperatives formed to combat these procedures. The antimonopoly feeling of the time produced the Farmers' Alliance and the Arkansas Agricultural Wheel in the southern states, and a number of organizations, collectively called the Northern Alliance, in the midwestern and north central states. Smaller in numbers, the Northern Alliance was more concerned with railroad issues and resorted to a third party movement to pass reforms.

The town of Pipestone was largely built with rock quarried from the large deposits of Sioux quartzite in the county. Beginning in the late 19th century, masons, builders and quarry workers collaborated to construct buildings from the stone. Their high level of craftsmanship, sense of beauty and ability to construct buildings of lasting quality are part of Pipestone's tradition. Several popular architectural revival styles were applied to the town's early downtown buildings, but rural architecture largely escaped the excesses found in the eclectic town architecture of the period. The high standard for the buildings found along Main Street in Pipestone are testimony to the builders. The local quarries also produced building materials for distant cities, with the railroads transporting the red stone to numerous locations.

Pipestone's Progress: Schools and Government: Pipestone's government began tackling local issues from the beginning of settlement. Pipestone's first school was a 10 by 15 foot wooden building, opening in the summer of 1878 with six students taught by Florence Bennett. This school was located at the corner of Hiawatha Avenue and 2nd Street. In 1881, a one-story 26 by 40 foot frame building was built on the northeast corner of the present Central School site. Two years later a two-story, five-room brick-veneered building, trimmed with Kasota sandstone, was built in the center of that property. A fire on March 29, 1893, destroyed both buildings, and school was held in the town churches as construction began on a three-story stone building. It was completed and ready for occupancy in the fall of 1894. As the population increased, two small schools were built in the eastern and western sections. The East Ward and West Ward schools served the first four grades. The use of these schools ceased when a large addition was made to central school in 1910, doubling its size. With increased enrollment after consolidation in the 1950s, district elementary students were bused to either Brown or Hill schools, both post-World War II schools.

Pipestone's history of education also includes the American effort to provide education to the nearby Sioux. Congress passed a bill in 1891 which appropriated $30,000 to build the Pipestone Indian Training School, located about one mile north of town, on the Pipestone reservation, which included the pipestone quarries. The school appropriated the entire 648 acres of reservation land surrounding the quarries, and the Yankton leaders, who did not object to the school itself, regarded its location as an attempt by the United States government to invalidate their claim to the quarries. The school opened February 2, 1883. It grew to consist of 56 buildings, including a farm and cottages. Eleven buildings were made of Sioux quartzite from the reservation quarries, including the Pipestone Indian School Superintendent's House, which dates to 1907.

Jasper and Ihlen: In 1888 two other towns in Pipestone County were founded south of the town of Pipestone. On April 19, 1888, the Pipestone county surveyor, Alfred S. Tee, surveyed the Jasper townsite, 12 miles south of Pipestone. The townsite was divided into 12 blocks and dedicated on May 4, 1888. Partially in neighboring Rock County, Jasper became a rival to Pipestone, and home to a stone quarry founded by the five Rae Brothers, Alexander, Andrew, William, Robert and George, who immigrated from Scotland. By the spring of 1889, 235 people were living in Jasper. Jasper was the last town in Rock and Pipestone Counties connected to rail transportation. The first passenger train arrived in Jasper on October 21, 1888. Religious services began in Jasper the same year, and the town soon possessed six churches. In the same year, the Great Northern Railroad company founded the town of Ihlen, five miles south of Pipestone. All trains stopped in Ihlen, while the conductor reported the number of cars in each train to the company. Ihlen's businesses were established soon thereafter. In June 1885 the first general store was opened by John Olson. In 1894 Albert Olson opened a hardware store and the bank of Ihlen soon followed, in 1904. The early 1920s saw the greatest railroad activity in Ihlen, but by the end of the decade it began to taper off as the advent of diesel-powered locomotives made it unnecessary for trains to stop there.

Pipestone and the 20th Century:As Pipestone grew, so did the public improvements. The town council established a local Board of Health, street committee and a waterworks committee, which produced a water system that used wind power to raise the water to an elevated tank for water pressure. This happened in October of 1887, at a total cost of $17,000. In 1895, the town installed street lights on the major streets in town. Soon after, the streets were paved. In 1907 Pipestone established standards for sidewalks, crossings and curbs. The Benjamin Building on 112 East Main Street was built in 1929, just before the Great Depression, and was named for its owner, Dr. W. G. Benjamin, who practiced medicine at this location until 1970.

The 20th century also brought Pipestone's first hospital, the Brown Hospital, constructed in 1912. The police and fire department expanded, and the original three-person mayor-council grew to a five-person mayor-council. An airport was constructed in 1946. As automobiles became common, the need for train travel decreased and the Calumet Hotel began to suffer for lack of business. Establishment of the Pipestone National Monument in 1937 and the Song of Hiawatha Pageant caused usage of the hotel to soar from the 1940s to 1960s, as Pipestone became a popular tourist spot. The Song of Hiawatha Pageant is held annually during the last two weekends in July and the first weekend in August. This show, derived from Longfellow's poem, possesses a cast of 200, and is known for its lighting effects and costumes. The Pipestone town charter, a document that outlines the form of government, initially limited the power of local government, but in 1978 the town adopted a new "home rule" charter that expanded the powers and responsibilities of local government. In the late 1970s Pipestone's historic and architectural significance was recognized by its listing as a historic district in the National Register of Historic Places.

Today, Pipestone is a progressive community of about 4,600 people and the county seat for the roughly 10,000 people in Pipestone County. With numerous sports facilities, a performing arts center, various festivals and the town's proximity to three local regional airports, including the Pipestone Municipal Airport, Pipestone is still a transportation hub, with the Pipestone National Monument, the Pipestone Commercial Historic District and other nearby historic locations waiting to be discovered by the interested traveler.

Downtown Revitalization

At the turn of the last century, Pipestone had four railroads coming through the town, making it an important regional tourism center. Traveling salesmen were, in fact, given better seats at the local theater (Ferris Grand Opera House) than the mayor and city council members.

At the turn of this century, though the railroads are gone, tourism is still an important part of the area's economy. Visitors now come by car and bus, from around the country and around the world, to see the Pipestone National Monument and the large number of Sioux quartzite buildings in the Pipestone Commercial Historic District.

Hoping to verify its assumption that the town's historic buildings are a large part of the current tourism trade, the Pipestone Heritage Preservation Commission (HPC), responsible for overseeing changes made to the building facades of the downtown historic district, conducted a year-long survey. The questionnaire, distributed at local tourism centers (including all local lodging establishments as well as local attractions), asked visitors two main questions: why they came to Pipestone, and what they enjoyed while here. The Commission found that consistently the top three attractions for visitors were the Pipestone National Monument, the historic buildings and the Pipestone City Hall (County Museum).

The Commission was especially pleased with these results, because Pipestone, like so many historic cities, went through a phase of urban renewal in the 1970s. Many buildings were razed, and several others were nearly destroyed. However, the lasting effect of urban renewal was the creation of the local historic preservation movement.

The historic Calumet Hotel was one of the first buildings in Pipestone to undergo a restoration project, between 1978 and 1981. The restoration work on that building continues to this day, and so far major projects have included the replacement of a bay window, tuckpointing, and the renovation of the main entry and interior. The Mackay Block and the Syndicate Block also underwent early restoration and preservation projects. The City of Pipestone adapted the Pipestone Public (Carnegie) Library for use as the local Senior Citizen Center, and conducted preservation work on the exterior.

More recently, the County of Pipestone has renovated the interior of the Courthouse, so that it closely resembles its original appearance. The county also completed preservation work on the building's exterior and conservation work on a 1901 statue on the front lawn. A local preservation group, Historic Pipestone Incorporated (HPI), has undertaken two large projects in recent years. They first restored the exterior of the last remaining train depot in Pipestone, basing their work on historic photographs of the building. After selling it to new owners (who have begun the interior renovations), HPI purchased the 1912 Brown Hospital, and are currently restoring it. The 1896 Moore Block, next to the Museum has also undergone recent restoration (the replacement of bay windows) and conservation work. Not only the buildings, but Main Street itself has undergone a beautification project. Historic-looking streetlights have replaced the modern lights. Trees which blocked the view of the buildings were removed, and planters and benches were installed on the sidewalks for the convenience of pedestrians.

As the saying goes though, beauty is more than skin deep. It is not only the fašade and the streetscape, but what is inside the buildings, which makes Pipestone appealing to visitors. In the past 10 years, a performing arts center (in the old Ferris Grand Block) and an art gallery have joined the decades-old Museum to become the cultural core of the downtown district. Each of these is located within half a block of the Historic Calumet Inn, while other attractions such as a movie theater, a recreation center, and retail stores and services are located with in a two block radius.

Pipestone Rock

On the Mountains of the Prairie,
On the great Red Pipe-stone Quarry,
Gitche Manito, the mighty,
He the Master of Life, descending,
On the red crags of the quarry
Stood erect, and called the nations,
Called the tribes of men together.

-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, " The Song of Hiawatha"

Since 1200 A.D., and perhaps as early as 900 A.D., American Indians quarried the beds of red-colored claystone and shale in the general vicinity of what is today the Pipestone National Monument. The claystone (a mass of limestone found in a clay deposit) discovered at this site is soft and easily carved, due to its peculiar composition. Consequently, it is used by the American Indians to make the ceremonial pipes which are an integral part of their religious and civic ceremonies. Because of this specific use, the rock is commonly called "pipestone." The city of Pipestone, located in southwestern Minnesota, would not exist if it were not for this soft red stone called pipestone or catlinite. Although pipestone was utilized for many years by American Indians to create ceremonial pipes, Pipestone, the town, found its wealth in the quarrying of pipestone and Sioux quartzite, another valuable stone in the region. The blocks, which came out of the Sioux quartzite quarry, were used for buildings. Today they are still used in the creation of headstone markers.

Geological History of Sioux Quartzite and Catlinite: Established in 1937, Pipestone National Monument, where much of the Sioux quartzite and catlinite (pipestone) is located, occupies a 282-acre tract of land. Geologically, much of this monument is characterized by a mantle of glacial drift less than 10 feet thick and consists dominantly of oxidized, light-olive-brown, clayey, calcareous till (unstratified glacial drift of clay, sand, and gravel) with scattered pebbles and cobbles of basalt and quartzite. The basalt fragments were transported from an exotic source to their present site by glacial processes, whereas the quartzite fragments were obviously derived from the underlying bedrock. All of the underlying bedrock is of early Proterozoic age, occurring between 1,770-1,600 million years ago. Quartzite is a massive, hard, light-colored rock with a flinty sheet; it is a metamorphosed sandstone. The Sioux quartzite consists predominately of othroquartzite, but fine-grained rocks, including quartz-rich siltsone, clayey siltstone, silty mudstone, and pipestone are also present in small amounts. In general, the quartzitic rocks are highly resistant to erosion and weathering. The quartzite is characteristically pink in color, but beds vary from light pink to deep red. In Pipestone, the stone is a dark red color, while in nearby Jasper, the quarries yield a lighter pink hue of Sioux quartzite.

Beds of catlinite occur in mixed contrast to the quartz-rich rock types. For the most part they lack appreciable quantities of quartz, are typically deep red to pale orange in color, and are generally massive. In general, pipestone is a claystone that consists predominately of very fine grained sericite with lesser amounts of hematite (red iron ore), pyrite (iron sulfide) and possibly rutile, a lustrous, dark-red material, titanium dioxide, commonly found in prismatic crystals and usually containing some iron. Its general lack of quartz makes pipestone soft and easy to carve. Although a number of other localities containing pipestone have been identified in Wisconsin and South Dakota, the quarries at Pipestone National Monument are still the single-most important source of this commodity. G. B. Morley of the Minnesota Geological Survey wrote in a report to the U.S. Department of the Interior, in 1981, titled Evaluation of Catlinite Resources, Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota, that the claystone or catlinite (pipestone) was used by the American Indians to make their ceremonial pipes, and "because of this specific use, the rock is commonly called "pipestone." Both pipestone and Sioux quartzite were important to the American Indians, and later, the American settlers who arrived in the region.

American Indian History and Legends of the Red Earth: The value of pipestone and Sioux quartzite was immense to the first inhabitants of North America. The Sioux were the American Indians dwelling near the Pipestone region when the Europeans first explored the area. The name "Sioux" is a French corruption of the Ojibwa term nadowe-is-iw, meaning "adder" or "enemy." Historically, the Sioux and the Ojibwa peoples came into conflict in northern Minnesota, when the Ojibwa expanded into a region being left vacant by westward migrating Sioux. One of the names the Sioux referred to themselves as was dak-kota ("alliance of friends"), which became anglicized to "Dakota" and "Lakota." "Dakota" refers to the eastern Santee and Yankton Sioux, while "Lakota" refers to the western Teton Sioux. The Sioux originated from the earlier Siouan population, which is thought to have occupied the lower Ohio and middle Mississippi valleys. The ancestral Dakota migrated northward and settled in parts of Wisconsin and most of northern Minnesota by the 16th and 17th centuries. The Yankton Dakota were those who had closest access to the valuable pipestone and Sioux quartzite deposits. These sites are held sacred by American Indians, and their cultural importance was recognized far beyond Dakota territory.

Numerous legends among the Dakota address the cultural importance of the Pipestone region to American Indians. A Brule Sioux legend, told by Lame Deer to Richard Erados, in Winner, South Dakota, in 1969, was narrated in the book, American Indian Myths and Legends. When the world was freshly made, so the narrative legend goes, Unktehi the water monster fought the people and created a great flood, whose waters engulfed the lands. Perhaps the Great Spirit, Wakan Tanka, was angry with his human children, for he allowed Unktehi to win, and the waters rose in wrath over the new earth. Soon everything was under water except the hill next to the location where the sacred red pipestone quarry is today. The people climbed up to save themselves, but it was no use. The rising waters swept over the hill, and falling rocks smashed down upon the people, killing everyone except one girl who was saved by a big eagle, Wanblee Galeshka, who flew her to the only safe spot, the highest stone pinnacle in the Black Hills. From this union descended the nation of the Lakota Oyate, the eagle nation. As for the other people who died, their red blood turned to pipestone, and created the pipestone quarry, which became sacred, as it was formed from the blood of the ancestors. That is why the pipes made from the red rock are sacred.

There were other legends and stories about the origin of the pipe and red stone. In one legend, the ground turned red from the blood of buffalo slaughtered by the Great Spirit, and man himself was formed from the red earth here. In another, all the American Indian tribes of the earth assembled and fought each other, and their blood stained the ground red. By all accounts, the pipes created from the quarries were sacred. Chief Standing Bear wrote the following account of the long stemmed pipe's significance to the Lakota Tribe in Land of the Spotted Eagle, published in 1933 in the book Land of the Spotted Eagle: "All the meanings of moral duty, ethics, religious and spiritual conceptions were symbolized in the pipe. It signified brotherhood, peace, and the perfection of Wakan Tanka, and to the Lakota the pipe stood for that which the Bible, church, state, and flag, all combined, represented to the mind of the white man."

Historically, there are dozens of pipe types in North America. Some, like the Mic-Mac and disc, are recognized by collectors. These pipes possess a distinctive style that can be recognized with even minor variation. This is especially true of those pipes that have a wide geographic distribution or have been found in fairly large numbers. Stone pipes, long known among the prehistoric peoples of North America, have been found at Mound City, in present-day Ohio. The quarries at Pipestone had been controlled by the Yankton Dakota since 1700. While the quarries were peaceful, neutral ground by tradition, several Dakota tribes seemed to have jostled for position to be closest to them. It was the legends of this region that inspired Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to write in 1855 his famous poem, "The Song of Hiawatha," an account of the creation of the Peace-pipe, as interpreted by an American retelling the Sioux legends. Longfellow's poem mentioned "And in silence all the warriors/ Broke the red stone of the quarry /Smoothed and formed it into Peace-Pipes. . ." Longfellow's poem also drew attention to the region.

Pipestone: Distinctive Architecture of the Town: Nearly a century passed between the time this region was purchased by the United States and when Pipestone, Minnesota was founded. After the 1803 Lousiana Purchase, American exploration and settlement increased. George Catlin, the noted American artist and writer, visited the area in 1836. In addition to his well-known sketches of the region, Catlin also collected several samples of the pipestone for subsequent geological study. It was later determined that the rock had a unique chemical composition, and because it was believed to occur only where Catlin had found it, the red pipestone was named "catlinite" in his honor. The town of Pipestone itself was established in 1873. With few or no trees growing in the area, the settlers discovered new ways to build temporary shelter until they could build more suitable homes. Many pioneers on the prairie constructed sod homes, made of dense earth. Sod homes offered warmth in the winter months and cooler temperatures during the summer, giving the settlers inexpensive yet functional shelters. In time, however, these pioneers desired permanent dwellings and looked to other natural resources available in the area: Sioux quartzite.

The quarry affected the building environment of the new city of Pipestone, influencing its architecture and business districts. With the encroachment of white settlers on the traditional Dakota territory, a treaty was developed in 1858 to protect the quarry area and to reserve quarry rights for the Yankton Dakota. The treaty stated that "the said Yankton Indians shall be secure in the free and unrestricted use of the red pipestone quarry," but several settlers laid claim to these lands, and even sold them. These squatters were not respected in the new city of Pipestone, and were later removed in October 1887 by Captain J. W. Bean of the Fifth Infantry. However, legal issues involving the reservation and quarry would take years to work out. Eventually, the new settlers began to mine the quarries near Pipestone and nearby Jasper. These quarries provided the building materials for the new city.

Sioux quartzite and pipestone were generally used together in construction, with their contrasting colors accenting each other. Beginning in the 1880s many buildings in Pipestone city were constructed of this hard stone, and its popularity swiftly spread to cities as far away as Chicago. Thousands of carloads were shipped to St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth, Sioux City, Cedar Rapids, Kansas City, Omaha and other cities of the West. Government and school buildings were constructed of the material. Pipestone's railroad tracks, which eventually crossed Yankton reservation land, were the economic link to these locations. In Pipestone, many of the buildings built from 1880 to 1900 were constructed from Sioux quartzite that gave the historic district its distinct red color. Bauman Hall, the Pipestone Public Library, the Pipestone County Courthouse and others in the city were quarried from the local quartzite stone. Many of the buildings were built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, synthesizing elements of Gothic and Roman architecture into a unifying vision, which complements the use of stone.

Quartzite was quarried at several locations. The major quarry in Pipestone County was just north of the city of Pipestone. A quarry at Jasper, actually located over the county line in Rock County, provided stone used in both Jasper and Pipestone. This was founded by the five Rae brothers, Alexander, Andrew, William, Robert, and George, who all settled in Jasper. Originally from Scotland, the five brothers opened their quarry in 1888, which was known as the Dell Rapids Granite Company. In the 1880s the railroad and the quarry opened up new opportunities for the townspeople, and this helped the new city grow.

Right to the Land: The ownership issues involving the Pipestone quarry and the nearby Yankton Dakota reservation, created in 1858, troubled the law courts for years. The title and legal issues surrounding the Yankton reservation were not easily solved; the Yankton Dakota claimed absolute title, while the United States government took the view that the American Indians had a right in the nature of an easement, an interest in land owned by another that entitles its holder to a specific limited use. Finally in 1926 the United States Supreme Court held that the American Indians held free title to the reservation land. The United States government had to make payment to the Yankton Dakota to compensate them for taking their lands. On April 16, 1928, the U.S. Court of Claims awarded the Yanktons $100,000.00 plus interest from March 1, 1891, until paid, for the appropriation of American Indian lands. In 1937, as part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs, Congress passed an act making the Pipestone Quarries and the surrounding landscape a National Monument, protecting its use. Now, only American Indians are permitted to quarry the soft red stone for ceremonial pipes. In 1993 there were 30 active quarry pits at Pipestone National Monument, of which 16 represented the sole-source of economic livelihood for 50 to 60 American Indians. The area surrounding Pipestone, Minnesota, is rich with the legacy of the pipestone and quartzite quarries. Pipestone's Sioux quartzite quarries were closed by the end of the 1930s. Jasper still has a working quarry, although its stone is no longer used for buildings.

List of Sites

Pipestone Commercial Historic District
Syndicate Block
 Cheverton-I.O.O.F. Block
 First National Bank - 113 W. Main St.
 Ober-Hubbard Building
 The Colonial
 First National Bank - 101 W. Main St.
 Mackay Block
 Ferris Grand Block
 The "L"
 Moore Block
 Pipestone City Hall
 Calumet Hotel
 Walker Block and Cook Drug
 Clymer Block
 Masonic Temple
 J. H. Austin Block
 Brown Hospital

Pipestone Indian School Superintendent's House

Pipestone National Monument
Rock Island Depot
Pipestone Water Tower
Pipestone Public Library
Pipestone County Courthouse

Ihlen Mercantile Company
Split Rock Bridge

John Rowe House
Gerber Hospital
Bauman Hall
Jasper Stone Company and Quarry

Pipestone Commercial Historic District

The Pipestone Commercial Historic District is comprised of approximately 30 commercial buildings located in a two-block area of downtown Pipestone. The town was first platted from 1873 to 1874. Pipestone experienced a boom from 1883 to 1884--the result of the establishment of railroad service to the area and successful land promotional efforts by the South Minnesota Land Company. The character of the district is derived from the exclusive use of Sioux quartzite as a building material in 17 of the buildings, making it the largest concentration of Sioux quartzite buildings in the state. The majority of these buildings were built in the 1890s and visually relate to each other in height, scale and vernacular style, sharing a common texture and color of building materials. Although most of the pivotal buildings are vernacular, there are examples of the Richardsonian Romanesque, Neoclassical and Italianate styles as well.

The most visually prominent building is the Calumet Hotel, a four-story Richardsonian Romanesque structure which occupies the main intersection in the downtown. Pipestone City Hall also illustrates the Richardsonian Romanesque style; the Neoclassical style is represented in the two buildings constructed for the First National Bank at 101 W. Main Street and 113 W. Main Street; the Italianate style can be seen at the Syndicate Block . Three of the buildings in the district are embellished with relief sculpture carved by local skilled craftsmen. The key to the beauty of Pipestone's buildings is how the stone is cut, dressed and arranged in the building walls. The masons used rough-faced stone, clearly marked joints, and arranged blocks in a variety of patterns and colors. The color variety of the historic district was produced by a blending lighter Sioux quartzite from the Jasper quarries with darker Sioux quartzite from the Pipestone quarries. Many of the early business establishments constructed during the 1880s and 1890s were built of Sioux quartzite. These are the buildings which comprise the district today and continue to serve commercial purposes.

The Pipestone Commercial Historic District is located in downtown Pipestone, including Main St. between Second Ave. SW/NW and Second Ave. NE/SE, and generally one block south along N. Hiawatha Ave. and Second Ave. SW. Many of the buildings within the district are open to the public during normal business hours. Visit the Chamber of Commerce's website for more information.

Syndicate Block

The Syndicate Block occupies a prominent corner in downtown Pipestone and has the distinction of being the largest and the oldest Sioux quartzite building in the Pipestone Commercial Historic District. In addition, this building also acts as an anchor for the West End Business District. There were originally three different stores with three different owners when the building was constructed in 1884.

Italianate in style, the two-story building is distinguished by a pressed metal cornice running along the length of both facades. This cornice also supports the pediment rising from the south facade. The pediment is embellished with a relief consisting of an Indian ceremonial pipe crossed with a bow and arrows. The design alludes to the town's association with the quarries and American Indian heritage. The south and east elevations no longer display their cornice features. A band of masonry block wraps around the building and is formed in part by the segmented arches of the windows.

The corner store of the building opened as a clothing store, became the post office from 1898 to 1906 and then housed a meat market from 1910 to 1964. The central store was Geyerman's, a woman's clothing store that opened in 1936. The store was so successful that it expanded into the corner store in 1964. The western storefront area always possessed a separate business, which did not incorporate into the Geyerman's store. In March 1920 a fire severely damaged the central and western stores, but the building was repaired. The second floor, like in many other Pipestone buildings, acted as professional offices, apartments and also as a hotel for a short period of time.

The Syndicate Block is located at 201-205 W. Main St., Pipestone. Still occupied by Geyerman's, it is open to the public during regular business hours.

Cheverton-I.O.O.F. Block

William Frost constructed the eastern portion of this two-story quartzite building in c.1889. A few years later, in 1896, Frost sold the building, at a cost of $6,000 to the International Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F.) which had been renting the second floor. Upon purchasing the building, the I.O.O.F. removed the Cheverton Block stone atop of the building and replaced it with the I.O.O.F. initials, which still grace the building today. The I.O.O.F. was a fraternal organization that began as a convivial society and mutual benefit organization. The I.O.O.F. used elaborate rituals to form a network of kinship ties through which the organization practiced its mutual aid, and also acted as a form of social club.

The I.O.O.F. purchased the adjoining lot to the west in 1910 and constructed a nearly matching building, except for the segmented arches over the second floor windows. The original east arches were constructed of sandstone, while the newer west ones are gray pink Sioux quartzite. Like many commercial buildings throughout the Midwest, the building housed two stores until the Ben Franklin store moved in and combined them. In the late 19th century, the building also accommodated an opera house on the second floor. I.O.O.F. remained in the second floor until the early 1970s. The first floor facade has been altered several times, removing recognizable traces of its original character. The second floor, however, still retains much of its original historic fabric, including oak trim and the original pressed tin ceiling.

The Cheverton-I.O.O.F. Block is located at 115 W. Main St., Pipestone and is open to the public during regular business hours as the Hobby Shoppe.

First National Bank - 113 W. Main St.

As one of the more prolific architects of Pipestone, Wallace Dow designed the 1898 First National Bank building. Leon Moore and A. J. Martin constructed the two-story, 25 by 80-foot Sioux quartzite building, decorated with molded gray granite columns and a Richardsonian inspired Sioux quartzite arch with a light colored keystone. The most distinctive features which still mark this Neoclassical building are the fluted pilasters with Corinthian capitals that support an entablature and triangular dentilated pediment, the lunette date stone and the words "First National Bank," done in relief on a light colored stone.

This building was the second home of the First National Bank, the first being in the Calumet Hotel. In 1916 it was sold to G. A. Belsheim, a clothing store. During this time, the arch and half of the pilasters were removed when Belsheim remodeled the first-floor facade. In 1931, the building again changed hands and became a grocery store until 1956. Further remodeling took place, completely altering the storefront to its present condition, and a shoe store moved into the space. The second floor of the building housed the Telephone Exchange and other professional offices from 1899 to 1952. For the past 20 years, the upstairs floor was used for apartment living.

The First National Bank Building is located at 113 W. Main St., Pipestone. It is currently empty and not open to the public.

Ober-Hubbard Building

Wallace Dow, an architect from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, designed this building, which Leon Moore constructed in 1899. The Ober-Hubbard Block's outstanding architectural features include Sioux quartzite dentils, rounded window arches with light colored quartzite keystones, and a frieze with a stylized blind arcade bordered on both the top and the bottom with jasper stone. Unfortunately, the lower facade does not resemble the original anymore due to the installation of a later aluminum storefront. The original businesses that were housed in this building were E. W. Crosby's shoe store and D. W. Smith's Jewelry Store. In 1910 Max Menzel purchased the building and moved his drug store into it three years later. At this time, Menzel combined the two stores into one. Interestingly enough, D. W. Smith moved his jewelry store into Menzel's former building; the two essentially switched buildings. Menzel's drug store remained in the Ober-Hubbard

Block for 34 years, followed by another drug store, which lasted until the early 1980s. The second floor of the building historically had been used for professional offices. Later, these were converted to apartments. The second floor of the building is now vacant. The Ober-Hubbard Building is one of three adjoining Sioux quartzite buildings on Main Street which are important visual elements in the district.

The Ober-Hubbard Block is located at 111 W. Main St., Pipestone. Now a photography store, it is open to the public during normal business hours.

The Colonial

Originally housing an ice cream parlor, this ivory terra cotta front building was designed by Joseph Schwartz in 1919 for H. Thompson and Gus Bussis. The facade of the building displays its most distinguishing features. The building is unusual as it incorporates different architectural styles into one building. Art Deco and Neoclassical Revival details are interwoven through the use of dentils, relief designs of flowers and the use of white terra cotta. Terra cotta offered buildings an inexpensive approach to wall and floor coverings that could be molded into rich ornamental detail. Terra cotta provided a fireproof alternative to wall coverings and quickly became the building material of choice in the early part of the 20th century. Although many other buildings

in Pipestone utilize the Sioux quartzite stone native to the area, terra cotta was a less expensive and an easier to carve alternative than the hard stone.

The original cost of the lot on which the building is situated was $10,000. The original building was 25 feet by 93 feet, and had a full basement. The rear of the building possessed a 24-foot by 15-foot addition to house the ice cream factory. The Colonial operated as an ice cream parlor until 1938, when several other businesses including a beauty salon moved into the building. A destructive 1996 Christmas Day fire consumed the rear addition, forcing its removal from The Colonial. The Colonial is still in use today, serving the community as an office of optometry.

The Colonial is located at 105 W. Main St., Pipestone. The office is open to the public during regular business hours.

First National Bank - 101 W. Main St.

The old First National Bank Building is another building that dominates the downtown of Pipestone. Designed in 1916 by P. J. Lindhoff, the bank relocated to this building from its earlier location at 113. W. Main Street. The Neoclassical building is constructed of buff colored Bedford limestone and has the name "FIRST NATIONAL BANK" carved over the large fluted Doric columns. The corner pilasters and dentilated cornice also make this building unique. Below the second story windows is a decorative frieze. Although many of the windows on the east elevation have been covered, and the stairway to the basement enclosed, the building still retains much of its original grandeur.

The First National Bank occupied the first floor of this building until 1973, when its present building was constructed. The building was then used as a drug store, which has been located in the building ever since. The second floor generally has been used for professional offices until recently when it was divided into apartments. The basement had always been home to a barber shop until Emile Klosterich retired in the 1980s after 50 years of service at this location. Following a disastrous 1996 Christmas Day fire in the adjoining buildings to the north, a major renovation of the interior took place.

The First National Bank Building is located at 101 W. Main St., Pipestone. Now the A&S Drug Store, it is open to the public during regular business hours.

Mackay Block

The city of Pipestone made good use of its natural resources in that many buildings utilized the Sioux quartzite for a sturdy building material, and the Mackay Block is no exception. Built in 1898 by Leon Moore for Fraser Mackay, the focal point of this two-story Romanesque building is the second floor oriel window. The building's facade is embellished with a checkerboard patterned frieze of pink and red Sioux quartzite and pink belt coursing. There is also a small white stone in the upper west corner with the inscription "F. MACKAY 1898."

In earlier years, the building was a dry goods store and grocery followed by the Gem Theatre for 20 years. An iron balcony was removed during a 1913 remodeling and enlargement phase. While inspecting the addition to the rear of the building during this time, Fraser MacKay, the building owner, fell off the scaffolding and died hours later of his injuries. During another remodeling phase in 1964 in which a bakery was housed in the building, the transom windows were replaced with large colored tiles and the oriel window was removed. Only a few years later in 1977, the building again was remodeled to restore its original front and the oriel window was replicated. The old butcher-block table and ovens from the building's bakery days are still located in the back area.

The Mackay Block is located at 110 E. Main St., Pipestone. It is now a ladies dress shop, Clothier By Dawn, open to the public during normal business hours.

Ferris Grand Block

The Ferris Grand Block was designed by Leon Moore, responsible for many of the town's buildings, for A. D. Ferris in 1898. The 32 foot by 90 foot, three-story Sioux quartzite building has a checkerboard patterned frieze, alternating pink and red quartzite and a roof comb. The building originally possessed a tablet bearing the Ferris Grand name, which was removed in 1916 and replaced by a block with "AF & AM" etched into it when it was purchased by the Masonic Bodies. Other carved stones were also removed at the time. In 1917, the Masons moved in, after which time the building was also referred to as the Masonic Temple.

Originally the building contained two stores on the first floor, the Ferris Grand Opera House on the second floor and a balcony on the third. At its grand opening on March 10, 1899, the opera house boasted seating for 800 on the main floor and balcony, and was said to be the largest and finest facility of its kind in this part of the state. Following its purchase by the Masonic Bodies in 1916, the second floor was remodeled into clubrooms. At that time, Leo Henke, an itinerant artist, was hired to create murals of ancient Biblical scenes on the upper walls of the large room. The scenes include the building of King Solomon's Temple, the Sea of Galilee, and the Mount of Olives. Forty-five feet high and 55 feet long, these paintings have been well preserved. An arch connected the two stores on the first floor in 1909. The S&L Store occupied this area for 62 years. In 1958 the front facade was remodeled with large maroon tiles, matching the annex to the west.

The Masons were very active in community affairs, causing one historian to comment that railroads and Masons developed the city of Pipestone. A former Grand Master Mason of the Pipestone chapter said that when he was a boy in the 1930s, every businessman on Main St. was a Mason save two. Still active in Pipestone, the Masons today offer guided tours of the murals to share their beauty with others. Following extensive remodeling to the interior, the Pipestone Performing Arts Center opened in the Ferris Grand Block in the spring of 1993.

The Ferris Grand Block is located at 106 E. Main St. and is open to the public during performances at the Performing Arts Center. The murals in the Masonic rooms may be viewed by appointment. The box office number is 507-825-2020. Bus groups and tours can call 507-825-5537.

The "L"

In 1897, Leon Moore, who also constructed the Moore Block at 102 E. Main St., built a Sioux quartzite building at 104 E. Main St. and 107 S. Hiawatha Ave. in the shape of an "L" around Moore's corner store. It featured a double facade of Sioux quartzite with two main entrances. Unfortunately, the S. Hiawatha portion of the building no longer exists. The front facade featured relief sculptures on the two pilasters adorning its entry. A dry cleaning establishment occupied the store from 1930 to 1966 when a fire burned through the west store on S. Hiawatha, leaving a vacant lot.

The 104 E. Main St. building features two recessed areas on the upper north facade. A polished stone to the west has the word "MOORE" carved into it. The main feature of the north facade is the polychromatic effect created by the use of light and dark shades of Sioux quartzite. The facade is embellished with stone finials and a sandstone relief sculpture of an angel holding two infants. The sculpture has deteriorated over the years, partly due to the softness of the stone and partly to a mistake made by its creator. Moore, a self-taught sculptor, carved the stone on the wrong grain, causing it to gradually erode.

A grocery store and a bar later occupied the north store on E. Main St. until 1958, when it was annexed to the S&L store to the east. At this time, the north facade was modernized with large maroon tiles. The 1966 fire that completely destroyed the west building heavily damaged the north store, but the damage was repaired. In 1993 the building was converted into the lobby for the new Pipestone Performing Arts Center, which occupies this building and the one to the east. At that time, the front facade underwent a complete rehabilitation.

The "L" is located at 104 E. Main St., Pipestone and is open to the public during performances at the Performing Arts Center and by appointment. The box office number is 507-825-2020. Bus groups and tours can call 507-825-5537.

Moore Block

Built in 1896, this 25 foot by 85 foot building was constructed of Sioux quartzite by Leon H. Moore, a local businessman who owned and operated a Sioux quartzite quarry. One of the more distinctive features of this building are the gargoyles that embellish the north and west facades. Leon Moore was an amateur sculptor who created the building's gargoyles and other sculptures, including the relief of Moses on the front facade. One of Moore's masterpieces, it has the face of Moses surrounded by bulrushes, two female faces, and the baby in the basket. Another biblical sculpture which adorns the building is of Eve with a serpent and apples surrounding her head. The flat stone arches of the two windows facing Main Street have sculpted heads as their keystones. Legend has it, although unconfirmed, that Moore had sculpted a statue of a nude woman, rumored to be Eve, and placed it in the niche on the front facade of the building. Apparently the townspeople were outraged by this act and forced the removal of the statue, which was never seen again.

The first floor front facade was modernized in 1938 with black glass and aluminum trim. Sometime later, two oriel windows on the west side of the second story were removed. The first floor housed many businesses, including a shoe store, which occupied the space for 72 years. In the early years, the second floor was home to doctors and lawyers and later became apartments. The basement, with its entrance on the west facade, housed several small businesses. The upper floors of the building are now vacant.

The Moore Block is located at 102 E. Main St., Pipestone and is currently a used furniture store, although it is not open to the public.

Pipestone City Hall

Among one of the more imposing buildings in town, C. C. Smith and Mr. Leeds constructed Pipestone City Hall in 1896 following the architectural designs of Wallace Dow. The building is constructed of Sioux quartzite and took only seven months to complete at a cost of $7,822. This building stands out in the streetscape of the city with its stepped parapet, finials and round arch window. A bell tower was removed from the third floor due to the structural instability of the roof. This building is notable in the city for its distinctive architectural style. The three-story building is built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style and displays heavy rusticated lintels. The most character-defining feature of the building is the saddle back roof with gables adorned with stone coping and finials. The Richardsonian Romanesque style became popular during the late 19th century because of its association with the industrialization of America. The robust stone arches and fortified walls symbolized strength and masculinity, two images that abound with the energy of industrialization and the expansion of the railroads across America during this period. The abundance of Sioux quartzite in Pipestone was conducive to the Romanesque style which became popular in the town.

The City Hall Building originally housed the fire department, the local government offices and the city water system. Over the next 64 years, the building also housed the city lock up, public library, gymnasium, meeting hall and teen center. The fire department and the city offices moved to new locations in 1959 and 1960, respectively. In 1966, the city deeded the building to the Pipestone County Historical Society. Following major renovation and repair to the interior of the building, the Pipestone County Museum opened in 1968. The museum and its staff offer an excellent source for historical information concerning Pipestone County and its people through changing exhibits, historical and genealogical research and publications.

The Pipestone City Hall Building, which now houses the Pipestone County Museum, is located at 113 S. Hiawatha Ave., Pipestone. The building is open to the public 10:00am to 5:00pm daily. There is a fee for nonmembers. Call 1-866-PIPEMUS for more information.

Calumet Hotel

The Calumet Hotel was built by Close Brothers and Co., an English land speculating company which helped Pipestone prosper in the late 19th century. This Richardsonian Romanesque influenced building dominates the downtown historic district of Pipestone. Its outstanding features are the large quartzite arch over the northwest door, the northeast corner door, the north crenelated cornice, the restored oriel window on the second floor northeast corner and the two engraved name plates near the top of the north facade. Its light pink jasper quartzite exterior contrasts with the darker red Sioux quartzite stone used for most buildings downtown.

Pipestone needed a hotel because of the increased railway traffic that passed through this growing midwestern town. The Close Brothers originally built a three-story Sioux quartzite building in 1883, but three years later fire totally destroyed the venture. The hotel reopened on Thanksgiving Day, 1888 and had accommodations for 50 guests. The First National Bank had its headquarters in the Calumet's first floor and basement. In 1899 a three-story addition to the south provided more guest rooms. The addition can be distinguished from the original building by the first floor window caps, which are round instead of square. A second addition in 1913 added the fourth floor, making a total of 90 guest rooms and maids' quarters. The original oriel window and balcony were removed in 1912. The First National Bank was one of about 30 businesses to occupy space in the Calumet's first floor and basement. One of the more unusual business ventures housed in the building was the 14-hole Bobby Links miniature golf course, which was located in the basement in 1914.

Although the owners had deemed the hotel fireproof, in February 1944 a fire gutted all floors of the south section. Repairs were made and the hotel reopened in April of that year. During the next 30 years the hotel's business declined and the building deteriorated. By 1978, the State Fire Marshall deemed the hotel unsafe and closed it. After an extensive rehabilitation between 1979 and 1981, which included replicating the oriel window, the hotel reopened in 1981. The Historic Calumet Inn has regained popularity and currently features guest rooms furnished with antique furniture, a lower level bar, lounge and restaurant.

The Calumet Hotel is located at 104 W. Main St. and is open to the public. Call 800-535-7610 or visit www.calumetinn.com/index.htm for further information.

Walker Block and Cook Drug

The two-story Sioux quartzite building at 106 W. Main St. was constructed for F.A. Walker in 1896. The pressed metal cornice and polished stone with the engravings "Walker Block" and "1896" are distinctive features of the building. The second floor bay window constructed in the early 1980s is a replica of the original one. Assorted saloons were located here for 78 years. At different times during the late 1890s and early 1900s the second floor was annexed to the Calumet Hotel by an arch. Since that time, the second floor has been used for professional offices and apartments. In 1972 Luksik Drug to the west in the Cook Drug building annexed the Walker Block to enlarge the store.

The one-story brick store at 108 W. Main St. was built for J. W. Cook's drug store in 1930. This building has a stepped parapet and a corbelled frieze. The front facade appears to be nearly original, aside from the large display windows which seem to be altered. The outstanding features of the building are the decorative arrangements on the front facade and the leaded glass window with the name J. W. Cook inscribed in the center of the amber glass. The drug store closed during the summer of 1998.

The Walker Block and Cook Drug are located at 106 and 108 W. Main St., Pipestone, respectively. They are not currently open to the public.

Clymer Block

This two-story Sioux quartzite building is distinguished by two short pyramidal quartzite finials that sit on either side of the cornice with "18" carved in the east one and "90" in the west. Contractor William Frost and builder J. M. Poorbaugh built the building for O. Clymer in 1890. The most distinctive features of this building include the corbelled cornice interspersed with jasper, arched windows with Sioux quartzite voussoirs and jasper keystones imposts. The first floor facade has been modified from the original design.

The city post office occupied the first floor upon completion of the building and remained there for eight years. In July of 1898, a one-story addition was added to the rear of the building to house the seed and feed department of a grocery store. The Colonial Sweet shop moved into the building in 1914 and three years later, installed a $1,500 organ. In 1919, the Colonial Sweet shop relocated to its new building, The Colonial. The Eagle Cafe also occupied this site, and although it changed hands, it lasted for over 75 years.

In 1920, a second story was added to the 1898 rear addition, complementing the original two-story building. An ice cream factory and bottling works were located in the new addition with a restaurant located in the front part. A photography studio occupied the second floor from 1893 to 1955. George Chesley had the first studio which consisted of five rooms. He sold his business in 1923 to C. E. Sogn who ran the studio until selling it to S. G. Claseman in 1947. Currently, the Pipestone County Museum owns approximately 3,000 of Chelsey's glass negatives, mostly of local residents, which date from the 1880s to the 1920s. Since the early 1950s, the second floor has been occupied as an apartment.

The Clymer Block is located at 114 W. Main St. Now a used clothing store, Second Edition, it is open to the public during regular business hours.

Masonic Temple

This three-story, random coursed Sioux quartzite building was completed in 1893 for $20,000 to house the Masonic Bodies Meeting Rooms. The Masons used the building as their headquarters until 1917 when the group moved to the Ferris Grand Block at 106 E. Main Street. The Masons existed as a fraternal organization that served the needs of the community through its kinship network. The rounded spheres located on the top corners represent the terrestrial and celestial globes of the universe--one of the many lessons of Masonry. The building also has a corbelled cornice with corner finials, jasper beltcourses and jasper segmental arches and imposts accenting the third-story window openings. A leading Pipestone citizen, J. M. Poorbaugh, who at the time owned one of the stone quarries, oversaw the stonework. In 1901, an outdoor stairway, which has since been removed, was placed in the west front corner leading to the barber shop and cigar factory located in the basement.

The Masons raised money to decorate and furnish their meeting rooms, located on the third floor, which remained there until 1917. The first floor was divided into two stores, with a hardware store located in the east unit until 1945 and later moved to the west unit until 1977. Although the sizes of the first floor stores have been changed several times, two stores have always occupied the building. The third floor was used for the manufacture of ladies clothing, house dresses and aprons for a short time during 1919 to 1920. The third floor, although unused for many years retains its tin ceiling and original room arrangement.

The Masonic Temple Building is located at 120-122 West Main St., Pipestone. It is currently empty and not open to the public.

J.H. Austin Block

This 25 foot by 85 foot two-story Sioux quartzite building was constructed by P. H. Theil in 1902 for J. H. Austin. The historic building is notable for its checkerboard-patterned frieze made from alternating pieces of Jasper and Sioux quartzite, and for its Jasper quartzite belt course. Austin's Confectionery operated in this building from its inception in 1902 until Austin's bankruptcy in 1914. The 1893 Columbian Exposition introduced many Americans to a machine which mass-produced candies or "confectioneries." Confectioneries, like Austin's, during this time also sold items other than sweets, such as tobacco and other foodstuffs.

Over the years, the building became home to a number of different businesses including a hospital run by Dr. Richards in the 1920s, and a grocery store, which inhabited the space

for 26 years. Apartments and other professional offices once occupied the second floor, but now are vacant. Several barbershops and ice cream and candy factories have also occupied the basement level. The facade of the building has changed when red tiles replaced the transom lights and aluminum siding once covered the first floor facade. Despite these alterations, the building remains important to the city of Pipestone.

The J. H. Austin Block is located at 124 West Main St., Pipestone. Now the Thoughtfulness Shop, it is open during regular business hours.

Brown Hospital

Pipestone's first hospital was located in this one and a half story 25 by 50-foot Sioux quartzite building. Constructed in 1912, the Brown Hospital is the only historic property related to the community's medical history. The building also has the distinction of being the only example in the historic district of a Sioux quartzite building that incorporates in its principle gable wooden overlays, clapboard, and scalloped shingle siding. The windows are recessed in the arch which overhangs the front porch. The roof still retains its original pressed metal roofing.The main floor contained offices for two doctors, a waiting room, dispensary and surgery room. The elevator to the four-room hospital on the second floor was unique in that it was large enough for a patient's bed.

Dr. Alex H. Brown practiced medicine here until he retired in 1945. A few years later, the practice was taken over by his grandson, Dr. Robert Keyes, who retired in 1993. In the early years, the basement housed a shoe store run by Dr. Brown's cousin, followed by other small businesses. Upon Dr. Keyes' retirement, the building and much of its contents were given to the Pipestone County Historical Society. In January 1997, Historic Pipestone, Inc., a non-profit group dedicated to historic preservation, purchased the building. The group is in the process of restoring the exterior to its 1912 appearance. The interior remains much the same today except for the removal of the elevator.

Brown Hospital is located at 116 2nd Ave., SW, Pipestone and is open by appointment. It is open the first Saturday of every month for a used book sale, or call 507-825-3413 to schedule an appointment.

Pipestone Indian School Superintendent's House

The Pipestone Indian School Superintendent's residence, built in 1907, is significant in Minnesota history for its association with federal policies towards American Indians, particularly the role the United States' government played in attempting to assimilate Indians through policies in education. This building is a rare remnant from what was once a sprawling farm campus that had over 60 buildings and a capacity for about 400 students. From 1886 to 1887 a dramatic shift occurred in federal Indian policy. The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 emphasized assimilation of Indians into mainstream American culture, and the educational system was an integral part of this new policy. The federal government believed that boarding schools, like that established in Pipestone in the 1890s, were advantageous because the government could maintain greater control over the Indians during their education. Boarding schools could also be more successful in overcoming the Indian's cultural ties. Not surprisingly, many parents of the Indian youth strongly objected to this new compulsory educational policy that would take their children from them and their culture. They resented the development of a school system without their consent or advise, and the attempt to assimilate their children at the cost of removing them from their traditional cultures.

In 1892, the first Pipestone Indian School building was finished. Children began arriving from all over the Midwest from such tribes as the Dakota, Oneida, Pottawatomie, Arickarree, Sac and Fox. As was typical of federal Indian vocational schools, students usually spent half their day in the classroom and the other half learning occupations such as farming, blacksmithing, masonry, carpentry, cooking, baking, and nursing. The training of students in these industrial skills was resented by many Indians who saw this essentially as menial chores.

As government programs changed, funding decreased, and the role of the Indian school diminished until 1953 when the school was closed. When Southwestern Vocational Technical Institute opened in 1976, nearly all of the original Indian School buildings were removed or destroyed. However, the Superintendent's Residence survived and was used as a private residence until 1983. Since that time the building has been the property of Minnesota West Community College (although the name has been changed several times) and used for storage.

The Superintendent's House is located on the campus of Minnesota West Community College on N. Hiawatha Ave., Pipestone and is not open to the public.

Pipestone National Monument

Pipestone National Monument, created by an act of Congress in 1937, is an area of ethnological, archeological and historical significance that preserves the pipestone quarries in a natural prairie setting. For centuries American Indians have come to this site to quarry the red stone called pipestone. Through the years pipes carved from pipestone have been used for many purposes: to show intention for war or peace, to seal agreements and treaties, for trade, and for religious ceremonies. Today, only American Indians may remove the soft red stone from the area.

The United States government's policy toward American Indians shifted in the 1930s with the introduction of John Collier as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Appointed by Harold Ikes, Collier brought about reforms in Indian policy promoting cultural preservation and tribal self-government for American Indians. In preserving the sacred pipestone quarry for tribal use only, the U.S. government recognized the importance and heritage of the people who first populated the area.

The soft red stone is found in a vein between layers of the harder red Sioux quartzite. Methods of quarrying have changed little since the process began. Quarrying is a laborious task involving weeks of work with hand tools, including sledgehammers, pry bars, sharp chisels, and metal wedges. The experience of the quarrier is also a major legacy of the monument. Many of the quarry pits have walls of quartzite rubble, which represent the physical efforts of generations of quarriers. Pipestone National Monument preserves the mile-long quarry line for continued use by members of all American Indian tribes.

Attractions at the site include operating quarries, native plants, rock formations, Winnewissa Falls, Leaping Rock, and a marker from the Nicollet Expedition. The visitor's center includes interpretive displays, films and information. A cultural center helps to explain the art of pipemaking and American Indian work.

Pipestone National Monument is administered by the National Park Service and is open to the public daily. Pipestone National Monument is located just north of the city of Pipestone. Follow signs from U.S. Rte. 75, Minn. Rte. 23, or Minn. Rte. 30. Admission is charged. For further information, visit their website or call 507-825-5464.

Rock Island Depot

The Rock Island Railroad Depot, built in 1890, is Pipestone's only remaining depot. In Pipestone's heyday, there were four rail lines going into the city. As one of the major reasons for Pipestone's prosperity, the railroad is central to the history of this small Minnesota town. The 26-foot by 80-foot depot is constructed of cream colored bricks, trimmed in Sioux quartzite. The freight room is wider and taller than the rest of the building, resulting in a projecting roofline and gables. A rectangular bay extends toward the track from the freight office. Two waiting rooms, one for male and one for female patrons, still exist and each have separate entrances and chimneys. Due to the decline in railroad usage, the depot closed in the 1960s.

For a time during the 1970s the depot served as a center for American Indians called the Spirit of Peace Indian Center. After sitting empty for several years, Historic Pipestone, Inc., acquired the depot in 1986. Since that time, the exterior has been restored with matching grants from the Minnesota Historical Society. In January 1997, Historic Pipestone, Inc. sold the depot to a American Indian organization, Keepers of the Sacred Tradition of Pipemakers. They have since completed renovation of the interior. Included is an art gallery, gift shop and meeting rooms.

The Rock Island Depot is located in the 400 block of N. Hiawatha Ave., Pipestone. Summer hours are Monday-Saturday, 10:00am to 6:00pm, Sunday noon-6:00pm. Winter hours vary. For further information call 888-550-8675 or visit the website of the Keepers of the Sacred Tradition of Pipemakers.

Pipestone Water Tower

Since its completion in 1921, Pipestone's concrete water tower has been a visible landmark of the city, rising high above the countryside and marking the city to travelers from several miles in the distance. Designed by L. P. Wolff of St. Paul, the structure is one of only two known water towers designed by Wolff in the United States and is significant for its poured concrete construction. The other tower is located in Brainerd, Minnesota. Campbell Construction Company built the tower from 1920 to 1921 for a cost of $24,610. The tower is 132 feet tall and approximately 25 feet in diameter. The interior of the supporting column is open and punctuated by a spiral series of windows. The concrete bowl atop the tower holds 150,000 gallons of water. At the time of construction, a 500,000-gallon underground reservoir was created at the base of the tower. With no natural glacial lakes in the area and sporadic rainfall, the tower is necessary to store the precious moisture taken from the soil. The tower draws water up from the earth through a pump and then gravity allows the water to flow when needed.

The structure is unusual in that there are windows and an interior stairway. The water tower began serving the city October 26, 1921, replacing an aging steel standpipe erected in the late 1880s. The concrete water tower continued to supply the city with water until 1976, when a newer, larger water tower was built. A restoration project was undertaken in the spring of 1990 with matching funds from "Celebrate Minnesota 1990." Along with the restoration of the tower, a wayside rest area was established. The restored tower became the focal point of an annual community celebration, the Water Tower Festival, which is held the last weekend in June.

The concrete water tower is located in the 500 block of 2nd St., NE., Pipestone. The tower is not open to the public but the rest area is open from spring to fall.

Pipestone Public Library

Andrew Carnegie, the wealthy late 19th-century steel baron, became the benefactor of many small towns and communities through his philanthropic enterprises. Between 1886 and 1919, Carnegie donated more than $40 million to build 1,679 new libraries across America. Many communities could not afford libraries on their own and Andrew Carnegie believed literacy was the key to help assimilate new immigrants into mainstream America. The Carnegie building in Pipestone is one such library that impacted this small Midwestern town. To be chosen as a location for a Carnegie library, a town had to possess land and be willing to pay for the upkeep of the library.

Constructed between 1903 and 1904, this 45 foot by 60 foot Sioux quartzite building was designed by Joseph Swartz and built by George Redmon. With its prominent raised Gothic arch entry and rounded northeast corner, the design is typical of other Carnegie libraries. The entrance of the building is articulated by a gabled wall, which projects from the front of the building. Pointed arches constructed of pink quartzite define the door openings. A circular stained glass window is located above the door and is enclosed within the arch. The front gable also has a raised relief panel depicting an open book, and a decorative band of pink quartzite separates the first and second stories. In 1976 when the public library was combined with the high school collection, forming a community library, the library relocated in a new section of the public high school. Later that year the exterior of the Carnegie building was restored and the interior adapted for use as a local senior citizens' center.

The Pipestone Public Library, now the location of Senior Citizens of Pipestone, is located at 217 S. Hiawatha Ave., Pipestone and is open to the public weekdays 8:30am to 4:30pm and during evening functions. Call 507-825-3252 for further information.

Pipestone County Courthouse

The County Courthouse is the most elaborately designed building in Pipestone County and is among the most outstanding examples of local use of quartzite stone. Built on land donated by Daniel Sweet, the Courthouse was designed by architect George Pass in 1899 and constructed by C. H. Peltier at a cost of $45,000. The Beaux Arts style is a particularly interesting choice for the building because of its association with power and civic pride. The building is noted for its architectural merit consisting of a rectangular plan with two slightly projecting bays at either end of the front facade and projecting entrances on both sides. A highly decorated square tower in the center of the front facade rises 110 feet above the ground and is topped by a dome and a figure of Lady Justice. The four clock faces in the tower have no clockworks and were never intended to function.

The Courthouse lawn contains the Memorial Soldier statue sculpted of Duluth sandstone by Leon H. Moore, a prominent Pipestone citizen. The four sides of the base contain the names of 204 Civil War and Spanish American War veterans from Pipestone County. For 24 years, a Civil War cannon, given by the City of Pipestone, joined the statue. The cannon eventually was returned to patriotic service by being donated to the scrap metal drive during World War II. In 1962, the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars purchased a surplus World War II Sherman tank to honor the veterans of the 20th-century wars. The tank is located on the north lawn along with the Memorial Soldier statue. The Courthouse underwent a complete restoration in 1995 and was rededicated in November of 1996.

The Pipestone County Courthouse is located at 416 S. Hiawatha Ave., Pipestone and is open weekdays 8:00am to 4:30pm. Call 507-825-6740 for further information.

Ihlen Mercantile Company

Ihlen, five miles south of Pipestone, was founded in 1888. The Ihlen Mercantile, constructed in 1885 by John Olson, was the first business establishment in Ihlen and remained in operation as a general store and post office until 1985. The building is a white frame building consisting of two units joined by a common wall. The one-story portion was constructed at a later date for use as a cream handling station. The outside stairway on the south side of the building was removed for safety reasons. A gable type roof was added to eliminate roof leaks.

A railroad town, Ihlen was selected as the freight division point for the Great Northern Railroad. One reason Ihlen received the distinction of the hub of the freight division is that there was already a reservoir there to act as a source of water for the steam engines. With the decline of steam powered locomotives, the town of Ihlen lost its railroad distinction, and slowly became the sleepy little village it is today.

The building is located on the northwest corner of Holman St. and Sherman Ave. in the village of IhIen. The building is not open to the public.

Split Rock Bridge

Built as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, the Split Rock Bridge is an outstanding example of an ornamental park bridge, achieving its aesthetic effect through the purity of its form and the beauty of its random ashlar masonry. The WPA was part of President Franklin Roosevelt's depression-era New Deal Program. The purpose of the WPA was to provide meaningful work to the unemployed and in the process preserve their skills and self-respect. It intended to stimulate the economy by offering the unemployed paid positions, which would enable them to help the economy with their spending.

Split Rock Bridge is a single span stone arch highway bridge that carries an unpaved north and south road over Split Rock Creek. The bridge is constructed of locally quarried bluish pink Sioux quartzite with rock faced and split faced surfaces. Symmetrically framed by stepped, flared random ashlar wing walls, the bridge displays a single segmental arch with random ashlar spandrel walls--the largest stone-arch span of any active highway bridge in the state. Surmounted by a well-defined coping, the parapets rise above the roadway level to serve as railings. At the south end of the east railing, a commemorative stone plaque bears the inscription "Split Rock Bridge/ Works Progress/ Administration Project/ 1938." The bridge was completed for an approximate cost of $46,000 and survives in an unaltered condition today. The stone was cut from the Miller Quarry in nearby Jasper and was custom cut to fit at the quarry. The keystones of the arch weigh between 7,000 and 8,000 pounds and the total weight of the arch is estimated at 15,000 pounds.

Split Rock Bridge and Split Rock Creek State Park are located about one mile south of Ihlen at 336 5th Ave. For further information, call 507-348-7908 or visit the Split Rock State Park website.

John Rowe House

The John Rowe House (or Farrar House) is a simple bungalow, like many found across the country; however, the house is unusual because it is sheathed in locally quarried stone. John Rowe, a quarry man, purchased this property in 1903 for $1,000. At that time, he altered the appearance of the existing wood frame house by re-siding it with Sioux quartzite. The one and a half story house has an irregular, but basically rectangular plan. Midway down each side of the building are projecting bays. The east bay is rectangular, while the west bay is rounded with a conical roof. The hipped roof has dormers and gables at the front and sides. The dormers and gables were not covered by Sioux quartzite at the time of Rowe's other alterations. The whole first story is of rough cut quartzite construction.

The Rowe House is significant as a common bungalow house type expressed in uncommon materials. The house is modest, yet substantial, and is a striking addition to the town's residential district. This house is in excellent condition and retains much of its original integrity.

The John Rowe House is located at 200 East 2nd St., Jasper, and is not open to the public.

Gerber Hospital

The Gerber Hospital, the small town of Jasper's first and only hospital, was constructed around 1914 for Dr. Louise M. Gerber. Modeled after a chalet in Gerber's homeland of Switzerland, the hospital was constructed of the stone from a building across the street that had collapsed because of a poor foundation. Dr. Gerber living quarters were in the basement level, while the upper floors were hospital wards. At one time the front porch was enclosed and served as a hospital ward. The building remained a hospital until 1932 when it was sold. The hospital was turned into a private residence in 1939, at which time the interior arches, and room designs changed. A Sioux quartzite fireplace was also added at that time. The frame roof has stick style elements: a gentle pitch, broad gables and projecting rafters. The stone construction, of Jasper Sioux quartzite, is visually striking. The raised basement has lunette windows. A garage at the rear of the house is of similar style and was built at the same time.

The Gerber Hospital is located at 120 E. Wall St., Jasper. Still a private residence, it is not open to the public.

Bauman Hall

Bauman Hall was constructed in 1881 as a hotel for quarry workers in the town of North Sioux Falls, where the building was originally located. North Sioux Falls was the site of a Sioux quartzite quarry, three miles north of Jasper. The quarries and town were shut down in the early 1900s. As there was no longer a need for a hotel in North Sioux Falls, Henry Holvig had the hotel building disassembled stone by stone and brought to Jasper where it was reassembled in 1908. Fred Bauman purchased the building in 1916, after which the hall became a store known as Silverbergs. All local school events were held on the second floor of the hall until the 1930s when a gymnasium was erected.

Sacks Brothers General Store moved to the first floor of the Bauman building in 1933, and remained there for nearly 30 years. From 1960 to 1973 it functioned as a grocery store. For the next eight years it held various businesses. The second floor was used during much of the 20th century as the town's social hall, used for activities such as roller-skating, school plays, basketball games, medicine shows and graduation ceremonies. Following a $71,000 renovation in 1981, it became the Jasper Senior Citizen's Center.

The building, now the Jasper Senior Citizen's Center, is located at 201 W. Wall St., Jasper. It is open Tuesday through Friday during normal business hours.

Jasper Stone Company and Quarry

The five Rae brothers, who immigrated from Scotland in 1886, were the primary organizers and promoters of the first stone quarry in Jasper. In 1888 shortly after the town was founded, Swedish immigrant stonecutters began arriving to work in the quarries. These skilled artisans produced building and paving blocks, using hand tools in an age-old stonecutting art that required both knowledge and physical skills. In its early days, the quarry furnished immense quantities of building blocks that were shipped to cities by rail. The stone was greatly sought after because of its hardness, elegance and permanent color.

C. F. Lytle, founder of the Jasper Stone Company, purchased the Jasper quarries in 1916. He was the first of three generations to own the company. He was followed by his son F. K. Lytle and his grandson C. F. (Bud) Lytle, who still operates the quarry. Of the four quarries once located in the area, Jasper Stone Company and Quarry is the only one still operating. Today stone blocks and pebbles are produced for lining industrial mills for use in grinding many elements. The stone is also cut and polished for use as cemetery monuments. The processing of stone has changed drastically from the labor intensive hand cutting method of the past to a one quarter long wire cutting system. A small number of workers are currently employed at the quarry, which occupies about 100 acres of land.

The Jasper Stone Company and Quarry is located in the south part of Jasper, just over the county border in Rock County. It is still an active quarry--visit www.jasperstoneco.com. The quarry site is not open to visitors, but a video describing the entire mining process is available for viewing at the Jasper Area Historical Museum, 102 E. Wall St., Jasper. Call 507-348-9841 for further information.

Learn More

By clicking on one of these links, you can go directly to a particular section:
Bibliography of Pipestone, Minnesota
Pipestone, Minnesota Children's Literature
Links to Minnesota Tourism and Preservation
Links to Historic Places Featured in this Itinerary

Bibliography of Pipestone, Minnesota

Catlin, George. Indian Art in Pipestone: George Catlin's Portfolio in the British Museum. London: British Museum Publications; Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.

Clark, Caven P. Archeological Survey of a Controlled Burn at Pipestone National Monument, Pipestone County, Minnesota. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, 1996.

Erdoes, Richard and Alfonso Ortiz, editors. American Indian Myths and Legends. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.

Haberly, Loyd. Pursuit of the Horizon: A Life of George Catlin, Painter & Recorder of American Indian. New York, Macmillan Co., 1948.

Harnsberger, John L. Jay Cooke and Minnesota: The Formative Years of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 1868-1873. New York: Arno Press, 1981.

Hintz, Martin. Country Roads of Minnesota: Drives, Day Trips, and Weekend Excursions. Lincolnwood, IL: Country Roads Press, 1999.

Hughes, David T. Perceptions of the Sacred: A Review of Selected American Indian Groups and Their Relationships with the Catlinite Quarries. Wichita, KS: Anthropological Research Laboratories, Dept. of Anthropology, Wichita State University, 1992.

Keillor, Steven J. Cooperative Commonwealth: Co-Ops in Rural Minnesota, 1859-1939. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000.

Lamar, Howard R., editor. The New Encyclopedia of the American West. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998.

Lavenda, Robert H. Corn Fests and Water Carnivals: Celebrating Community in Minnesota. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

Luecke, John C. The Great Northern in Minnesota: The Foundations of an Empire. St. Paul, MN: Grenadier Publications, 1997.

Meyer, Roy Willard. Everyone's Country Estate: A History of Minnesota's State Parks. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1991.

Moore, Willard B. Circles of Tradition: Folk Arts in Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1989.

Murray, Robert A. A History of Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota. Pipestone, MN: Pipestone Indian Shrine Association, 1965.

Pipestone County Historical Society. A History of Pipestone County. Dallas, TX: Taylor Publishing Company, 1984.

Pipestone County Historical Society. Couteau Heritage, Journal of the Pipestone County Historical Society. 1989.

Rothman, Hal and Daniel J. Holder. Managing the Sacred and the Secular: An Administrative History of Pipestone National Monument. Henderson, NV: Hal K. Rothman and Associates, 1992.

Sutter, Barton. Cold Comfort: Life at the Top of the Map. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.

Wilson, Robert S. Trolley Trails Through the West. Yakima, WA: Wilson Bros. Publications, 1978.

Pipestone, Minnesota Children's Literature

Dygard, Thomas J. Wilderness Peril. New York : Morrow, 1985.

Nelson, S.D. Gift Horse: A Lakota Story. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999.

Plain, Nancy. The Man Who Painted Indians: George Catlin. New York: Benchmark Books, 1997.

Shaw, Janet Beeler. Kirsten Saves the Day: A Summer Story. Middleton, WI: Pleasant Company Publications, 2000.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. On the Banks of Plum Creek. New York: Harper Trophy, 1971

Links to Pipestone Tourism and Preservation

Pipestone Chamber of Commerce and Convention and Visitor Bureau
Find local businesses, special events, and area attractions, as well as lodging and restaurants at this official site for Pipestone, Minnesota.

Pipestone County Museum
Located in the Pipestone City Hall, the museum is dedicated to the preservation of the history of Pipestone County, Minnesota, and operates a historical museum with many artifacts and as genealogical resources.

Pipestone National Monument
Discover online the natural beauty of this National Monument. Included in this site are directions, information on fees and facilities, and activities held at the park.

Split Rock State Park
Located six miles south of Pipestone, this state park offers hiking trails, fishing, boat rentals, a beach, and lodging. Directions and a history of the southwest region of the state can also be found here.

Minnesota Office of Tourism
Learn more about Minnesota's attractions, including arts and entertainment, nature and the outdoors, and local community information. Discover the scenic byways of the state or use the trip planner to help organize a vacation. State and city publications can also be ordered online free of charge.

Pipestone Indian Shrine Association
This organization traces its roots back to the 1930s when the first attempts at recognizing the area as a National Park were first made. Their offices are located within the visitor center of the monument in the Midwest Indian Cultural Center. The site is largely comprised of a progressive history of the pipes made from the pipestone and is complemented by many images.

Minnesota Historical Society
Established in 1849, this nonprofit organization collects and preserves Minnesota's history through its museum exhibits, libraries, historic sites, and educational programs. An alphabetical list of the county historical societies are also included within this site.

Geology Fieldnotes of Pipestone National Monument
The processes of digging and carving the bowls and stems from the pipestone are spelled out in this site, along with links to the National Park Service's sites on Pipestone National Monument.

Keepers of the Sacred Tradition of Pipemakers
Formed in 1996, this international group was organized to protect the pipestone quarries of Minnesota from exploitation or ownership by any one specific tribe or group of people. Pipes, jewelry, and art are available for sale online.

Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER)
The HABS/HAER program documents important architectural, engineering and industrial sites throughout the United States and its territories. Their collections, which include several historic sites in Pipestone, are archived at the Library of Congress and available online. You can view these by clicking on the link above and entering the search terms "Pipestone" and "Minnnesota."

National Trust for Historic Preservation
Learn about the programs of and membership in the oldest national non-profit preservation organization.

National Park Service Office of Tourism
National parks have been interwoven with tourism from their earliest days. This website highlights the ways in which the NPS promotes and supports sustainable, responsible, informed, and managed visitor use through cooperation and coordination with the tourism industry.

National Scenic Byways Program
This website, maintained by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, includes information on state and nationally designated byway routes throughout America based on their archeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational, and scenic qualities. Visit the America’s Byways Minnesota River Valley Scenic Byway website for more ideas.

Links to Historic Places Featured in this Itinerary


Pipestone, Minnesota, was produced by the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the Pipestone Heritage Preservation Commission, Pipestone County Musuem, Jasper Area Historical Society, Pipestone National Monument, the Minnesota State Historic Preservation Office, the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO), and the National Alliance of Preservation Commissions (NAPC). It was created under the direction of Carol D. Shull, Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, Patrick Andrus, Heritage Tourism Director, and Beth L. Savage, Publications Director. Pipestone, Minnesota, is based on information in the files of the National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks collections. These materials are kept at 800 North Capitol St., Washington, D.C., and are open to the public from 9:00am to 4:00pm, Monday through Friday.

Lorraine Draper of the Pipestone Heritage Preservation Commission and Rebecca Ostrom, Assistant Director of the Pipestone County Museum conceptualized and compiled photographic and written materials for the itinerary. Contextual essays were written by Rebecca Ostrom and Rustin Quaide (NCSHPO). The itinerary was designed by Nathan Poe, independent contractor with the National Register. The map was designed by Shannon Bell (of NCSHPO), who coordinated project production for the National Register, along with web production team members Jeff Joeckel and Rustin Quaide (both of NCSHPO). Further editorial, photographic, and web assistance was provided by Sarah Pope (NPS), Sandra Scaffidi and Yen M. Tang (both of National Council of Preservation Educators). Special thanks to Geraldine Peterson, the Jasper Area Historical Society, and Betty McSwain with the Pipestone National Monument who provided additional information and photographs.


[graphic] Link to essay on Pipestone County History [graphic] Link to essay on Downtown Revitalization[graphic] Link to essay on Pipestone: The Rock

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