Coldwater Spring

A small stone building sits at the edge of the water.

NPS/Gordon Dietzman


Coldwater Spring was added to the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area in January 2010, with the goal of restoring the landscape to an oak savanna/prairie complex. An extensive renovation, which included the removal of twelve buildings and the restoration and seeding of twelve acres of prairie and one acre of wetlands, began in early 2011 and was largely completed by August 31, 2012. During the course of the restoration more than 1,000 trees, shrubs, grasses and wildflowers were planted on the property. The restoration work, however, will continue for many years.


This area served as an important crossroads for Native Americans and traders using both the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers for commerce and travel. During the construction of Fort Snelling U.S. soldiers camped at Coldwater Spring, making it the first American settlement in Minnesota. By 1825, construction of the fort had been completed and soldiers had moved from Coldwater into the fort. The area around the spring, however, continued to attract traders, Native Americans, and a small village developed that serviced the trade at the site.

The spring also continued to provide water to the new fort and the later Upper Post. The fort initially relied on horse-drawn water wagons and eventually railcars to deliver water from Coldwater Spring up until the 1870s. By 1879, the fort was expanded under Secretary of War, Alexander Ramsey. The fort's expansion demanded a more efficient water supply system and, in 1880, the Army established a formal waterworks at the spring. Coldwater served as the water source for the Army until the 1920s when the Army turned to the City of Saint Paul to supply water for the fort.

The property was last home to the Bureau of Mines: Twin Cities Research Center. The buildings were constructed primarily during the late 1950's through the early 1960's.The Research Center developed significant mining safety equipment, mining technologies and mineral extraction processes used worldwide. The labs there also analyzed the composition of some of the moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo moonshot missions. Federal funding for the Bureau of Mines was permanently eliminated in 1996; by 1997 the buildings were vacated and gradually fell into disrepair. They remained vacant until their demolition in 2011.


The park features a crushed limestone trail for walking to Coldwater Spring. Additionally, there are many opportunities for wildlife viewing and photography. Birdwatching is becoming a popular activity at Coldwater Spring as the savanna/prairie restoration matures and attracts a larger number of species. Turkeys, deer, and even coyotes are not uncommon and native wildflowers bloom throughout the growing season.

Additional Information

  • Dogs are welcome but must be on a leash no longer than 6 feet (2 meters) in length.
  • Bicycles must be walked on the gravel trail from the parking lot past the spring house to the junction of the next trail to prevent rutting.
  • WARNING: Water from the spring house and reservoir is not potable. Do not drink or use for personal consumption. Our tests indicate the water that runs from the spring's recharge area is not filtered sufficiently by natural processes to be safe for human consumption.
  • We monitor the water discharge from both the springhouse and Wetland A weekly.

Hours, Directions and Contact Information

  • 6 a.m. - 10 p.m.

  • 5601 Minnehaha Park Dr S, St Paul, MN 55111 (Not all electronic maps use this address for this location and you may want to use the GPS coordinates below.) Driving directions: From Hiawatha Ave, turn east on 54th Street East and then immediately south on the frontage road. Paid parking is available along this street. (Parking at Coldwater is limited to disability parking only.) From the west, drive east on 54th Street East and turn south on the frontage road after passing through the Hiawatha Ave intersection.

  • GPS: 44.901602, -93.198256

  • Get a Map

  • Mississippi River Visitor Center at (651) 293-0200

Last updated: October 19, 2022

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Contact Info

Mailing Address:

111 E. Kellogg Blvd., Suite 105
Saint Paul, MN 55101


This is the general phone line at the Mississippi River Visitor Center.

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