Jefferson Rock

sunrise view from Jefferson Rock
Sunrise view from Jefferson Rock, NPS Photo/Cook

Visiting Jefferson Rock

Jefferson Rock is a popular destination in Harpers Ferry. It is situated along the Appalachian Trail between the Lower Town and Camp Hill areas of the park. The location offers gorgeous views of the surrounding mountains, the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, and the water gap.

To access Jefferson Rock from Lower Town, first go to the stone steps located between the African American History Museum and the Civil War Museum on High Street. Climb the steps and proceed past St. Peter's Catholic Church to the next set of steps. Continue to follow the path past the ruins of St. John Episcopal Church until you reach Jefferson Rock. Please note, due to the nature of its location, Jefferson Rock is not accessible to those with physical limitations.

visitors standing near Jefferson Rock
Visitors standing near Jefferson Rock, NPS Photo

Rules / Regulations

Please note the following regarding your safety and the protection of Jefferson Rock as a cultural resource:

  • Jefferson Rock is unstable.
  • Walking on, climbing, ascending, descending, or traversing Jefferson Rock or its supporting base rock is prohibited. [36 CFR 2.1 (a) (5)]

History of Jefferson Rock

Several large masses of Harpers shale, piled one upon the other, comprise Jefferson Rock. The name of this landmark derives from Thomas Jefferson, who stood here on October 25, 1783. His description of the view first appeared in the Notes on the State of Virginia, published in 1785:

"The passage of the Patowmac through the Blue Ridge is perhaps one of the most stupendous scenes in Nature. You stand on a very high point of land. On your right comes up the Shenandoah, having ranged along the foot of the mountain a hundred miles to seek a vent. On your left approaches the Patowmac in quest of a passage also. In the moment of their junction they rush together against the mountain, rend it asunder and pass off to the sea. The first glance of this scene hurries our senses into the opinion that this earth has been created in time, that the mountains were formed first, that the rivers began to flow afterwards, that in this place particularly they have been so dammed up by the Blue Ridge of mountains as to have formed an ocean which filled the whole valley; that, continuing to rise, they have at last broken over at this spot and have torn the mountain down from its summit to its base. The piles of rock on each hand, but particularly on the Shenandoah, the evident marks of their disruptions and avulsions from their beds by the most powerful agents in nature, corroborate the impression.

"But the distant finishing which nature has given the picture is of a very different character. It is a true contrast to the former. It is as placid and delightful as that is wild and tremendous. For the mountains being cloven asunder, she presents to your eye, through the cleft, a small catch of smooth blue horizon, at an infinite distance in that plain country, inviting you, as it were, from the riot and tumult roaring around to pass through the breach and participate in the calm below. Here the eye ultimately composes itself; and that way, too, the road happens actually to lead. You cross the Patowmac above the junction, pass along its side through the base of the mountain for three miles, the terrible precipice hanging in fragments over you, and within about 20 miles reach Frederictown and the fine country around that. This scene is worth a voyage across the Atlantic."

The uppermost slab of Jefferson Rock originally rested on a natural stone foundation so narrow that one was able to sway the rock back and forth with a gentle push. Because this natural foundation had "dwindled to very unsafe dimensions by the action of the weather, and still more, by the devastations of tourists and curiosity-hunters," four stone pillars were placed under each corner of the uppermost slab sometime between 1855 and 1860.

Last updated: August 25, 2016

Park footer

Contact Info

Mailing Address:

Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
National Park Service
PO Box 65

Harpers Ferry, WV 25425


304 535-6029

Contact Us