1986 Seeds of knowledge: a conversation with natural history writer Gary Paul Nabhan. The Bloomsbury Review, Vol. 7, issue 7 (July/August), pp. 14-16. Denver, The Bloomsbury Review. [In this interview between Dahl and the author of The desert smells like rain, Nabhan talks briefly about the Sand Papagos and their knowledge of plants. He also talks about Papago writer/linguist Ofelia Zepeda.]
1995 Wild foods of the Sonoran Desert. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Map, illus. 23 pp. [This color-illustrated booklet about edible plants of the Sonoran Desert includes many references to the Tohono O'odham and their use of such items as saguaro fruit, squash, beans, watermelon, corn, and cholla buds. Diabetes as a problem among Tohono O'odham is also discussed and there is a story told by Laura Kermen, a Tohono O'odham, concerning Wolfberries (Lycium thornberi).]
Dailey, Elsie M.
1963 Jean Baptiste Salpointe: first Roman Catholic bishop of Arizona. Arizoniana, Vol. 4, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 23-30. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. [Related here is the 1866 journey made by Salpointe, Mr. Vincent, and others from Santa Fe to Tucson, Mr. Vincent being "a male school teacher" who "would work with the Papago children at the San Xavier mission near Tucson." Mention is made of Salpointe's taking Mr. Vincent to San Xavier "to start his school."]
Dale, Edward E.
1949 The Indians of the Southwest: a century of development under the United States. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. Maps, illus., bibl., index. 283 pp. [There are scattered references to Papagos on pages 12, 18, 19, 46, 56, 113, 117, 119, 126, 163, 177, 178, 221, 230, 236, 237, 240, and 241. Photographs involving Papagos are on pages 16, 128, and 240.]
1979 Papago Indians light the way. American Indian Journal, Vol. 5, no. 10 (October), pp. 10-13. Washington, D.C., Institute for the Development of Indian Law. [This is about the formal dedication in December, 1978, of the newly-installed photovoltaic cell system (solar electrical generator) at the Papago village of Schuchuli (Gunsight) on the Papago Reservation. There are two photos, including one of Papago young people in costume doing traditional dances.]
2000 Indian basketmakers of the Southwest. El Palacio, Vol. 105, no. 1 (Summer/Fall), pp. 56-57, 59. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico. [Dalrymple writes that, "Hopi coiled baskets have a bundle foundation and thus resembles baskets currently being made by the Tohono and Akimel O'odham of southern Arizona. It is likely that the Hopi use of a bundle foundation was influenced by the Hohokam, who are the probable ancestors of the O'odham."]
Damon, Meffie; Ruby Edwards, Judy Eichman, Don Garate, and others
1998 In the footprints of the past. An interpretive and informational guide to Tumacácori National Historical Park. Illus. 40 pp. Tucson, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. [The title is the abstract. Included here is a partial list -- taken from Spanish church registers -- of names of O=odham who lived at Arivaca, Guevavi, Sonoitac, Toacuquita, Tubac, and Tumacácori between 1739 and 1753.]
1976 A desert Christmas. Boys' Life, Vol. 66, no. 12 (December), pp. 30-31. North Brunswick, New Jersey, Boy Scouts of America. [Five photos in color and an 8-paragraph text tell about a Christmas spent by Papago Indian boys and girls resident in a children's home located at Sells, Arizona.]
Danky, James P., and Maureen E. Hady, compilers
1984 Native American periodicals and newspapers, 1828-1982: bibliography, publishing records, and holdings. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press. [Listed here are various newspapers that have been published on the Papago Indian Reservation at Sells, including Aw'o'tahm Ah'pa'tac, Papago Bulletin, Papago Indian News, Papago News, Papago Newsletter, and the Papago Runner. Also listed is The Roadrunner, published at San Simon.]
Dart, Allen, editor
1994 Archaeological studies of the Avra Valley, Arizona: excavations in the Schuk Toak District. Two volumes. Tucson, Arizona, Center for Desert Archaeology. Maps, illus., bibl. + 2 computer discs + 1 booklet (12 pp). [Included here are results of archaeological investigations on the Papago Indian Reservation within the eastern Schuk Toak District of the Tohono O=odham Nation. The booklet is titled, ATohono O=odham antiquity.@]
Dart, Sarah N.
1993 Phonetic properties of O=odham stop and fricative contrasts. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 59, no. 1 (January), pp. 16-37. New York, Douglas C. McMurtrie.
1933 Guidebook to the western United States. Part F. Southern Pacific lines, New Orleans to Los Angeles. Geological Survey Bulletin, no. 845. Washington, Government Printing Office. Maps, illus., bibl., index. [There is a brief mention of Mission San Xavier del Bac on p. 190, and a photo of the church faces page 184. A general discussion of Papagos is on pages 189-190; the Papago village of Chuichu, population 349, is located nine miles south of Casa Grande (p. 224); the Papago population of the Gila Bend Reservation is 224 (p. 227).]
Danzinger, Edmund J., Jr.
1983 A new beginning or the last hurrah: American Indian response to reform legislation of the 1970s. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 69-84. Los Angeles, American Indian Studies Center, University of California at Los Angeles. [The 1978 Papago Tribal Chairman, Cecil Williams,. is quoted concerning what was then the federal government's relatively new self-determination program for Indians. He favored it.]
1886 With pack and rifle in the far Southwest: adventures in New Mexico, Arizona, and Central America. London, Edinburgh, and New York, T. Nelson & Sons. 389 pp. [Without citing sources, the author writes (p. 121): AThe Papago tribes. These are distributed through nineteen villages, and the collective population can hardly be less than four thousand souls.@]
1934 Have dogs guardian angels? Indian Sentinel, Vol. 14, no. 3 (Summer), p. 64. Washington, D.C., Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. [This is about a Papago boy and his pet dog. The boy was a student at St. Anthony's Mission School; the author is Sister Theresa David, C.M.F.]
1935 Knotless netting in America and Oceania. American Anthropologist, Vol. 37, no. 1 (January/March), pp. 117-134. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [Papago and Pima carrying frames, or burden baskets, made with knotless netting technique are mentioned in a chart on page 123.]
Davidson, M. Oliver
n.d. [Untitled letter.] In Arizona Mining Company vs. The French Government. s.l., s.n. [Davidson's letter is contained in this claim against the French government by the Arizona Mining Company, of which Davidson was "Engineer and Director." He writes that since 1863 he was acting U.S. Indian Agent for the Papago and was instructed to employ Papagos in agricultural and mining pursuits (p. 13).]
1865a Letters of United States sub-Indian agent. In Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1865, pp. 129-130. Washington, Government Printing Office. [These are three letters: June 16, 1865 to W.P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs; June 13, 1865 to Captain Scott, commander of the U.S. steamer Saginaw; and June 13, 1865 to Joseph Black, Guaymas, Sonora. They concern problems encountered with the shipping of twenty-five cases of goods for the Papagos and tame Apaches in payment for their service to the government in warfare against the Apache.]
1865b Report of special agent for the Papago. In Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1865, pp. 131-136. Washington, Government Printing Office. [This August 12, 1865 report is addressed to William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. On pages 131-136 there is a general discussion of the Papago. He discusses the language and its relation to Aztec; he offers a version of the origin legend as gathered from Con Quien, chief of the central Papago; he gives the extent of the Papago country; and he notes that Don Jose Victoriano Solosse is the governor at Mission San Xavier del Bac. He notes problems with establishing a reservation at San Xavier and the problem with land allotments. He notes that Papagos are self-sufficient agriculturalists; that they cooperate with whites against Apaches; and he gives population figures for various Papago villages and comments on principal crops and employment.]
2001 Cornell's field seminar in applied anthropology: social scientists and American Indians in the postwar Southwest. Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 43, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 317-341. Tucson, University of Arizona, The Southwest Center. [Cornell's field seminars in applied anthropology included one on the Papago Indian Reservation in 1949. Detailed here is the three and one-half month study carried out among Papagos by Henry Dobyns, one focusing on his examination of a project involving construction of bolsas on the reservation.]
Davis, Carolyn O.
1998 Women and trading posts. Glyphs, Vol. 49, no. 6 (December), pp. 11-13. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [This article is about Goldie Preston Tracy Richmond, a woman born in Kansas in 1896 and who moved to the Papago Indian Reservation in 1927 where she eventually operated a trading post near San Simon village. The emphasis here is on Goldie's skills as a quilter. There is a photo of Goldie as well as of one of her quilts.]
1999 Goldie Tracy Richmond: Indian trader and quiltmaker. In Uncoverings 1999 [Research Papers of the American Quilt Study Group, Vol. 20], edited by Virginia Gunn, front cover, pp. 127-157. Lincoln, Nebraska, American Quilt Study Group. [This biographical sketch of Goldie Richmond, a longtime trader on the Papago Indian Reservation, includes a color photo on the front cover of one of her applique quilts showing scenes of Papago life as well as fourteen additional black-and-white photos, one of a crocheted doily with the Papago man-in-the-maze design. There is also a photo of the church at Kupk.]
2000 Goldie Tracy Richmond: trapper, trader, and quiltmaker. Quilter's Newsletter Magazine, Vol. 31, no. 3 (April), pp. 44-47. Golden, Colorado, Primedia, Inc. [This article about Goldie Richmond provides biographical details while featuring color photos of a few of her quilts. Goldie, a non-Indian, lived on the Papago Indian Reservation from 1927 until 1966, trapping animals and operating a trading post near San Simon village. Two black-and-white photos show Goldie and another shows her trading post, Tracy's (the family name of her first husband), at San Simon.]
1972 Kino's historic haunts. Outdoor Arizona, Vol. 44, no. 4 (April), pp. 15-18, 28-29. Phoenix, Phoenix Publishing Company. [This modern-day tracking of part of the routes followed by Father Eusebio Kino, S.J., in southern Arizona in the late 17th and early 18th centuries makes mention of Kino's apostolate among the Papago Indians. Mission San Xavier del Bac and the San Xavier Indian Reservation are mentioned as well.]
Davis, Edward H.
1920 The Papago ceremony of Vikita. Indian Notes and Monographs, Vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 158-178. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. [This account of the Papagos' vikita ceremony is based on personal observations among the Papagos of Quitovac, Sonora, Mexico in the summer of 1920. The legend of "Montezuma" was related by Kia'had (Rainbow), a Papago living three miles north of the international boundary, and was interpreted by Joseph Menager. Included are fourteen photos of the ceremony and of Papago men and women. This is one of the few eye-witness accounts of this important Papago ceremony.]
1943 More on shrine legend. Desert Magazine, Vol. 6, no. 12 (October), p. 18. El Centro, California, Desert Publishing Company. [Davis takes issue with a version of the legend of the Papagos= children's shrine at Santa Rosa as reported in Muench in the March, 1943 issue of Desert Magazine. He agrees with the version presented by Hayden (1943) in a later letter to the editor.]
Davis, Goode P., Jr.
1982 Man and wildlife in Arizona: the American exploration period, 1824-1865 [A Contribution of Federal-Aid to Wildlife, W-53-R], edited by Neil B. Carmony and David E. Brown. [Phoenix], Arizona Game & Fish Department in cooperation with the Arizona Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. xviii + 232 pp. [The 1849 account by John Woodhouse Audubon of his trek among Papagos is quoted in part on pages 54-55 and is alluded to again on page 189.]
1897 [Letter to Gen. James H. Carleton, marked private, datelined Tucson, April 5, 1864.] In The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies, series 1, Vol. 34, part 3, pp. 209-210. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Davis complains about Charles D. Poston and his trip in Arizona: AThe arms for the militia, Colonel Bennett says, are at Yuma, because the military service was not made to subserve in every way possible P(oston)=s pecuniary interests and gratify political aspirations, hence the unjust and false accusations, &c. An escort of one officer and 30 men he took to the mines south for private interests, and thence into Sonora, to San Ignacio, Magdalena, etc. The detachment furnished him at San Xavier he wished to use as an escort, &c., in connection with his mines, before they were taken away. They were not necessary for his protection at San Xavier. ...@]
Davis, Natalie Y., and Robert C. Goss
1977 Cocóspera: lonely sentinel of resurrection. El Palacio, Vol. 83, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 24-43. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico. [With a map and detailed photographs and drawings, this is an excellent study of the art and architecture of the ruins of the Pimería Alta Mission Cocóspera. The Spanish-period history of the mission is given beginning with its founding among the Northern Pimans by Father Eusebio Kino in 1689 or earlier.]
1986 Arizona law enforcement: a survey from the collection of the Arizona Historical Society. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 27, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 315-348. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. [Included here are brief discussions of former Papago lawmen Roswell Manuel, Hugh Norris, and George Norris. Mention is also made of the fact that by 1972 illegal drugs had become a problem on the Papago Indian Reservation.]
Dawes, Henry L.; Henry M. Teller, and Hiram Price
1882 Report to accompany S. 1959 B a bill granting the right of way to Arizona Southern Railroad Company through the Papago Indian reservation in Arizona. Reports of the Committees of the Senate of the United States, Vol. 4, no. 746, 47th Congress., 1st session. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Although granted, this right of way across the San Xavier Reservation was never put into use.]
Dawson, William L.
1921 The season of 1917. The Journal of the Museum of Comparative Oology, Vol. 2, pp. 27-36. Santa Barbara, California, Museum of Comparative Oology. [Included here is a description of the great mesquite forest on the San Xavier Reservation.]
Day, A.D.; D.R. Grove, and R.K. Thompson
1972 Arizona Indian corn (Zea mays L.). Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science, Vol. 7, no. 1 (February), pp. 8-11. Tucson, Arizona Academy of Science. [This is a discussion of the kind of corn grown aboriginally on the Papago and Hopi reservations in Arizona. Emphasis is on a modern study of quality and yield of such corn. It is concluded that Indian corns were earlier, had longer leaves and more stalks per plot, and higher grain volume-weights than selections from the Mexican June Complex. There is a review of the literature on the subject; there are three tables; and references are cited.]
Day, A.D.; R.K. Thompson, and D.R. Grove
1974 The charm of ... Indian corn. Progressive Agriculture in Arizona, Vol. 26, no. 3 (May/June), pp. 14-15. Tucson, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona. [This illustrated article reports on results of experimental plantings from collections of Papago and Hopi corn.]
1982 "Acid drainage from abandoned metal mines in the Patagonia Mountains of southern Arizona." Master of Science thesis, Tucson, University of Arizona. 139 pp. [Dean credits Sobaipuri Indians with having been the first to mine minerals in this region -- probably a mistaken notion.]
1982 Water. Administration veto endangers southern CAP. Dennis DeConcini Reports from the U.S. Senate (July), p. 4. Washington, D.C., s.n. [Senator DeConcini's newsletter contains this discussion of President Ronald Reagan's veto of the Central Arizona Project bill which would have settled the Papago Indian lawsuit against various other users of underground water in southern Arizona.]
1972 Bringing back the basketmakers. The Humble Way, Vol. 11, no. 3 (Third Quarter), pp. 2-9. Houston, Humble Oil & Refining Company. [Papago basketry is discussed on pages 4 and 6 and there are color photos of Papago baskets on pages 2 and 9.]
1978 Notes on creation ... Outdoor Arizona, Vol. 50, no. 10 (October), p. 11. Phoenix, Phoenix Publications, Inc. [A capsule summary is given of the Papago origin legend, although Papagos are not identified in the essay as the source of the story.]
1979 The Gila Trail ... pathway in the desert. In Trails west, prepared by the National Geographic Society, Special publications Division, pp. 144-173. Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society. [Passing mention is made of Papagos and of Mission San Xavier del Bac in this discussion of the history of the Gila Trail through southern Arizona. Four color photos of the mission accompany the text.]
1989 Great escapes. America West, Vol. 4, no. 9 (November), pp. 32-36. Phoenix, Skyword Marketing Inc. [This brief Arizona travelogue includes a color photo of Mission San Xavier del Bac by J. Peter Mortimer and a recommendation travelers visit, Athe most beautifully conceived and restored of America=s Spanish mission, San Xavier del Bac, erected under the direction of Jesuit (sic) and Franciscan priests in the 17th and 18th centuries.@]
1997 In Tucson's long history, what you 'Cs' is what you get. Arizona Highways, Vol. 73, no. 3 (March), p. 49. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Writes Dedera, "In 1700 he (Father Eusebio Kino) blessed the foundation stone of what would become San Xavier del Bac, surviving today as both a working mission and a magnificent example of 18th-century Spanish colonial architecture."]
1998 Collecting prized Pima Indian baskets is fast becoming a missed opportunity. Arizona Highways, Vol. 74, no. 3 (March), p. 49. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Mentioned in passing is the fact that "the Tohono O'odham (formerly called Papago) produce thousands of baskets annually. Some smaller items sell for $50 or less; not bad for a special gift."]
De Grazia, Ted
n.d. Arizona south: about Papago and Yaqui Indians. Tucson, De Grazia Studios. Illus. [A separately printed version of De Grazia (1957a). Illustrated with sketches and paintings by artist De Grazia, included are one-paragraph accounts of the Papago saguaro fruit harvest, Papago taka game, Papago fair and rodeo, and a Papago ceremonial rain dance called Uta-wah-paw-tahm.]
1957a Arizona south. Arizona Highways, Vol. 33, no. 11 (November), pp. 14-25. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [Included here is a full-page watercolor painting by De Grazia of the Papago saguaro harvest. There are also four sketches relating to Papagos accompanied by one-paragraph captions: "Papago (saguaro fruit) harvest"; "Papago taka game"; "Papago fair and rodeo"; and "Uta-wah-paw-tahm (rain) dance."]
1957b The blue lady: a desert fantasy of Papago land. Tucson, Balkow Printing Company. Illus. [Although not mentioned by name in the discussion, it is clear Papagos are included in an essay about "The Indians." There are numerous illustrations here by artist De Grazia dealing with Papagos.]
1959 Papago pilgrimage. Arizona Highways, Vol. 35, no. 10 (October), pp. 10-13. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [This is an article illustrated by artist De Grazia concerning the October pilgrimage made by Papago Indians to Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico to pay homage to their patron saint, San Francisco Xavier.]
1961 Kino sketches. In Kino ... a commemoration, pp. -. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers= Historical Society. [These nineteen pen-and-ink sketches by artist De Grazia include figures which, although not labeled as such, are clearly intended to represent Northern Piman Indians among whom Father Eusebio Francisco evangelized in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.]
1962 Padre nuestro. A strange story of now and long ago. In Padre Kino. Memorable events in the life and times of the immortal priest-colonizer of the Southwest depicted in drawings by De Grazia, pp. 19-30. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [De Grazia mentions that Father Kino was founder of Mission San Xavier del Bac, and writes that Kino "would be happy to know that hundreds of visitors stop there every day." And the Astrange story@ is one told to him about Kino and Kino=s life by an imagined Indian woman, presumably a Papago.]
1966 APadre Kino.@ Tucson, Gallery in the Sun. Illus. 10 pp. [This is an announcement of a portfolio of reproductions of twenty paintings by artist De Grazia of people, places, and events connected with the story of Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, S.J., pioneer European and missionary among Northern Piman Indians. Included here are several pen-and-ink sketches of Papagos, including one of two women harvesting saguaro fruit. There is also a sketch of Mission San Xavier del Bac with Indians outside in the plaza.]
1967? Impressions of the Papago and Yaqui Indians: Indians of southern Arizona. Tucson, De Grazia Studios. Illus. 14 pp. [A later version of De Grazia (n.d.).]
1972 Introduction. In San Xavier del Bac: poem of the desert, by Dick Frontain, p. 5. Tucson, Los Amigos. [De Grazia writes glowingly about the beauty of Mission San Xavier del Bac: AShe is built from desert earth. She stands alone, yet she becomes a part of the desert. She is a jewel.@]
1975 De Grazia paints the Papago Indian legends. Tucson, De Grazia Gallery in the Sun. Illus. 42 pp. [Color illustrations by artist De Grazia accompany briefly-related stories concerning the creation of the world; the monster of Quitovac; the Eagle-man; and Ho'ok, the witch.]
1979 De Grazia and Padre Kino. Tucson, De Grazia Gallery in the Sun. Illus. 79 pp. [With a brief text by Patricia Paylore, this is a gathering of many drawings and full-color paintings by De Grazia depicting scenes in the life of the late 17th and early 18th century pioneer Jesuit missionary to the Papagos and other Pimans, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino.]
1997 De Grazia's borderlands sketches. Memoir by Elizabeth Shaw. Tucson, The Southwest Center, The University of Arizona. Illus. 75 pp. [There are black-and-white sketches here of "The Papagos" and of San Xavier (pp. 16-31). The Papago drawings include those of saguaro harvesting.]
1968 Tucson=s new AOld Pueblo.@ Desert Magazine, Vol. 31, no. 1 (January), pp. 28-31. Palm Desert, California, Desert Magazine. [This article about Tucson, Arizona calls the attention of visitors to sites of interest, including Mission San Xavier del Bac and Tumacacori Mission. Photos of both churches accompany the article.]
1928 Inspecting historic missions. Arizona Historical Review, Vol. 1, no. 2 (July), pp. 85-92. Phoenix, Arizona State Historian. [This is a summary of a visit made in April, 1928 by the author and several other individuals, including Governor George W.P. Hunt and Dean Francis Lockwood, to the missions of the Pimería Alta. He visited missions San Xavier del Bac, Tumacacori, Imuris (which was still partly standing), Magdalena, Dolores, Cucurpe, Tubutama, Altar, Caborca, and Pititquito.]
Delk, John L.; Gerald Urbancik, Cecil Williams, Greg Berg, and Marvin W. Kahn
1974 Drop-outs from an American reservation school: a possible prevention program. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 2, no. 1 (January), pp. 15-17. Brandon, Vermont, Clinical Psychology Publishing Company. [Lack of parental control and mental retardation were found to be the principal reasons for dropping out of Indian Oasis School District schools in Sells, Arizona. A program of counseling with parents alleviated the situation during the one year it was tried.]
DeLong, Scofield, and Leffler B. Miller
1936 Architecture of the Sonoran missions: Sonoran expedition, October 12-29, 1935. Berkeley, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Maps, illus. [This unpaged report concerns fourteen missions in the Pimería Alta. There are an introduction, discussion of materials and construction, development of mission architecture, and summary and recommendations. The report is accompanied by photographs and outline descriptions and drawings of the fourteen missions, one of which is Mission San Xavier del Bac. The four pages devoted to San Xavier include two color drawings, one of the decoration above the door in the baptistery leading to the sotocoro and another showing the nave wainscoting and overhead decoration of the cornice and area immediately beneath it. Also see De Long and Miller (1976) and Pickens (1993).]
1976 La arquitectura de las misiones de Sonora: en la Pimería Alta. In El Valle de Cocóspera, Sonora. Primer informe [Cuadernos de los Centros, no. 21 (Marzo)], compiled by Arturo Oliveros. 43 pp. Hermosillo, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dirección de Centros Regionales, Centro Regional del Noroeste. [This is a translation into Spanish by Oliveros and Ivonne Aurdirac of the Pimería Alta portions of DeLong and Miller (1936). Photos, plans, and elevations of the missions are included.]
1992 San Antonio de Oquitoa. In San Miguel de Guevavi. The archeology of an eighteenth century Jesuit mission on the rim of Christendom [Publications in Anthropology, no. 57], by Jeffrey F. Burton, appendix G. Tucson, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Western Archeological and Conservation Center. [This 5-page appendix consists of the pages from DeLong and Miller (1936) relating to the Pimería Alta mission of San Antonio de Oquitoa, a structure built by Jesuits and later modified by Franciscans.]
DeLong, Sidney R.
1905 The history of Arizona. San Francisco, The Whitaker & Ray Company, Inc. 139 pp. [Includes mention of Mission San Xavier del Bac on pages 75-77, 143, 147, and 154, with data from secondary sources.].
Deloria, Vine, Jr.
1972 This country was a lot better off when the Indians were running it. In Native Americans today: sociological perspectives, edited by Howard M. Bahr, Bruce A. Chadwick, and Robert C. Day, pp. 498-506. New York, Harper & Row. [Deloria quotes a Papago man who told him in 1965 that the Papagos don't need the National Congress of American Indians because the Spaniards and Mexicans came and went and Americans would do likewise. But the Papagos, like the mountains, would remain (p. 505).]
1985 Introduction. In American Indian policy in the twentieth century, edited by Vine Deloria, Jr., pp. 3-14. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. [Passing mention is made of the fact that the study of voting patterns of Papagos in non-Indian elections is fairly easily studied because Papago precincts are relatively easy to identify.]
1998 Bob Thomas as colleague. In A good Cherokee, a good anthropologist, edited by Steve Pavlik, pp. 27-38. Los Angeles, University of California, American Indian Studies Center. [Deloria recounts attending the funeral of Carla, Robert Thomas=s daughter from his first wife (who was a Papago woman) at Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1982, and he writes about Thomas=s organizing a sweat lodge ceremony by his home on the San Xavier Reservation for his students in a university seminar.]
Deloria, Vine, Jr., and Clifford M. Lytle
1983 American Indians, American justice. Austin, University of Texas Press. Bibl., index. xiii + 262 pp. [Mention is made of the fact that workers for the Papago legal services program visit the villages by making trips in conjunction with visits by staff of the Indian Health Service.]
1954 Papago homes. Indian Sentinel, Vol. 34, no. 5 (May), pp. 75-77. Washington, D.C., Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. [This is a general article about Papago home life written by a Franciscan nun working on the Papago Reservation. Three black-and-white photos show a little girl grinding grain on a metate; six Papagos and a nun harvesting wheat by hand; and Papago women and children on a wagon in front of their home near Our Lady of Guadalupe Mission.]
1976 Visitor's guide to Arizona's Indian reservations. Phoenix, Phoenix Books/Publishers. Map. 115 pp. [Pages 98-103 discuss the Papagos and their reservations. Subject headings include: Papago land; The Papago people; Where the Papago live; The weather; Attractions in Papago land; Camping notes; The San Xavier Reservation district; The Gila Bend district; and Ak Chin Reservation.]
1989 Desert bloom. USAir Magazine, Vol. 11, no. 4 (April), pp. 14-19. Greensboro, North Carolina, Pace Communications, Inc. [This color-illustrated article about the saguaro cactus begins with a (bogus?) Papago legend about a Papago woman who refused to nurse her baby, setting the baby down on the sand instead. The baby sank out of sight, and the next day where the baby had disappeared there was instead "a giant cactus -- its arms raised pleadingly toward the sky." The author also notes that Papagos continue to harvest the fruit of the saguaro.]
Dempsey, Arthur D.
1971a "Culture and conservation of time: a comparison of selected ethnic groups in Arizona." Ed.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson. Bibl. 65 pp. [This is an effort to determine if children of non-Western cultures perceive time in a similar manner as children of Western culture and whether or not these children conform to the stages postulated by Jean Piaget. Papago children were among those examined in the study.]
1971b Time conservation across cultures. International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 6, no. 2 , pp. 115-128. Paris, Dunod. [This study compares the perceptions of time among children of differing cultural and non-Western backgrounds: Papagos, Pimas, Hopis, Apaches, and Navajos. Tests devised by Jean Piaget were used in the study. Papago children tested were from Gu Achi (Santa Rosa), Arizona.]
1906 The races of man: an outline of anthropology and ethnology.. Illus., index. 611 pp. [Page 535: "The Pimas and their cogeners the Papajos constitute one of the principal tribes of the Sonorans. They dwell in pueblos of 'casas grandes,' (sic) and expend a prodigious amount of labor in drawing their subsistence from the infertile soil of the Gila Valley. However, they are fine tall men -- (mean ht. 1 m. 71, according to Ten Kate), -- slim and nimble, having the head a trifle elongated -- (ceph ind. on the liv. sub., 78.6), the nose prominent, etc."]
Dennis, Henry C., compiler and editor
1971 The American Indian, 1492-1970. Dobbs Ferry, New York, Oceana Publications, Inc. Bibl., index. 137 pp. [This chronological listing of various events in the history of Indian and non-Indian relations has an entry for 1937 indicating that as the year Papagos adopted a constitution and by-laws (p. 54).]
Dennis, Robert, and Guy Webster
1979 Guar shows potential as drought-tolerant summer crop for Arizona grain farmers. Progressive Agriculture in Arizona, Vol. 30, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 10-11. Tucson, College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona. [Guar is a plant whose seed produces a gum used in many industries. Much of this article concerns its production on the Ak Chin Indian Reservation.]
n.d. Songs of the Papago. Washington, D.C., Library of Congress Press. [This is a booklet, including liner notes, to accompany long-playing Record L-31, recorded and edited by Frances Densmore and issued by the Library of Congress from its collections in the Archive of American Folk Song via its Music Division Recording Laboratory. The texts of many Papago songs are here in English translation.]
1921a Indian music. El Palacio, Vol. 10, nos. 13-14 (June), pp. 3-9. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico and the School of American Research. [Papago are one of seven Indian tribes whose songs are studied by Densmore. Mention of their songs is found on pages 3, 7, and 9.]
1921b Music of the Papago and Pawnee. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 102-107. Washington, The Smithsonian Institution. [Written anonymously, this is a note about two field trips among Papago Indians undertaken by Densmore in 1920. The first was a four-week trip to study and record Papago music at San Xavier. The second was to study Papago salt expeditions and rain-making ceremonies, including the manufacture of "tizwin" (saguaro fruit wine) as well as to make observations concerning music. The second trip included visits to Vamori, Sells, and Santa Rosa. One photo shows the desert country of the Papago while two others show Papagos playing native musical instruments.]
1924 Rhythm in the music of the American Indian. Annaes do XX Congresso Internacional de Americanistas, Vol. 1, pp. 85-89. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Imprensa Nacional. [Papago curing songs are alluded to on page 89.]
1926a American Indian poetry. American Anthropologist, Vol. 28, no. 2 (April/June), pp. 447-449. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [There is a transcription on page 448 of the Papago "Owl Woman" song for curing the sick.]
1926b The American Indians and their music. New York, The Womans Press. [Words are given for a Papago curing song involving a black snake (p. 64); words to two Papago Owl Woman songs are on page 70; and the attitude of Papagos toward love songs, that they are dangerous, is on page 85. The Papago basket drum is mentioned on page 106; Papago rasping sticks, used on expeditions to obtain salt, are described on pages 113-114; and the fact that Papago songs have melody without tonality (i.e., no keynote) is mentioned on page 134.]
1926c Poems from desert Indians. The Nation, Vol. 122, no. 3171 (April 14), p. 407. [Here are texts in English for six Papago songs, some connected with the rain ceremony, recorded by the author.]
1926d The songs of the Indians. American Mercury, Vol. 7, no. 25 (January), pp. 65-68. New York, Alfred L. Knopf. [Includes discussion of Papago song rituals and Papagos' use of color terms in singing about wind.]
1927a Desert Indian rain chant. World Review, Vol. 5 (November 21), p. 151. Mount Morris, Illinois, Educational Publications, Inc. [Text of a set of Papago songs.]
1927b Handbook of the collection of musical instruments in the United States National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 136. Washington, United States Government Printing Office. [The Papago rasping stick and basket drum are mentioned on pages 16 and 70.]
1927c The use of music in the treatment of the sick by American Indians. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 13, no. 4 (October), pp. 555-565. New York, G. Schirmer, Inc. [This essay includes a photo of Owl Woman, a Papago woman living at San Xavier in 1920, as well as quotes from Papagos, such as "medicine is something like the heat vibrations that rise from the desert in summer." Also included are words for two Papago healing songs and general statements concerning Papago beliefs about disease.]
1928a The melodic formation of Indian songs. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 18, no. 1 (January), pp. 16-24. Washington, D.C., Washington Academy of Sciences. [Songs used in the analysis presented here include those of the Papago.]
1928b Some results of the study of American Indian music. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 18, no. 14 (August 19), pp. 395-408. Washington, D.C., Washington Academy of Sciences. [Results of the collective analysis of 1,073 songs of North American Indians, including those of the Papago, are presented here.]
1929 Papago music. Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, no. 90. Washington, Government Printing Office. Illus, index. 229 pp. [Harry Encinas of San Xavier and Hugh Norris of Sells were Densmore's principal interpreters for her study of Papago Indian music, a study presented here in a classic report. Table of contents: List of songs; Special signs used in transcription of songs; Names of singers and numbers of songs transcribed; Characterization of singers; The Papago tribe; Musical instruments and their use; Tabulated analysis (etc. etc.); Phonetics; Songs connected with legends; Treatment of the sick; Songs connected with ceremonies; Songs connected with expeditions to obtain salt; War songs; Songs of the kicking-ball races; Songs of the Bat dance; Dream songs; Hunting songs; Songs for entertainment of children; Miscellaneous songs; Melodic and rhythmic analysis of songs by serial numbers; index.]
1930a The music of American Indians at public gatherings. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 22 (December 19), pp. 509-510. Washington, D.C., Washington Academy of Sciences. [This is an abstract of an essay later (1931) published by Densmore with the same title.]
1930b New aspects of American Indian music. The Etude, Vol. 48, no. 1 (January), pp. 12-13. Philadelphia, Theodore Presser Co. [Lack of a keynote and the "tuneful" quality of Papago songs are noted.]
1930c Peculiarities in the singing of the American Indian. American Anthropologist, Vol. 32, no. 4 (October/December), pp. 651-660. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [Densmore writes that Papagos believe that all diseases are caused by spirits of dead, of birds, or spirits of animals -- each imparting songs to be used in the cure of disease. References to Papago songs are on pages 658-659.]
1931 Music of the American Indians at public gatherings. Musical Quarterly, Vol. 17, no. 4 (October), pp. 464-479. New York, G. Schirmer, Inc. [Includes two Papago songs -- both words and music -- and a description of a trip made by Densmore to attend a Papago Christmas night dance on the desert.]
1932 A resemblance between Yuman and Puebloan songs. American Anthropologist, Vol. 34, no. 4 (October/December), pp. 694-700. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [Two hundred Papago songs are among the more than 2,000 Indian songs collected and analyzed by the author. She states that "there is a sharp demarcation in rhythmic structure between the San Blas, Yuman and Pueblo songs on the one hand as against the songs of the Papago, Yaqui and all other recorded songs" (p. 695).]
1934 Songs from north and south. In The path on the rainbow, edited by George W. Cronyn, pp. 343-360. New York, Liveright Publishing Corporation. [This new and enlarged edition of a book first published in 1918 includes the words to songs by Papago Indians first published in Densmore's "Papago music" (1929). They appear here on pages 352-358 and include twenty titles.]
1936 The American Indians and their music. Revised edition. New York, Womans Press. [A revised version of Densmore (1926b).]
1939 The poetry of Indian songs. In So live the works of men, edited by Donald D. Brand and Fred C. Harvey, pp. 121-130. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press. [Included are lyrics of nine Papagos songs, those involving the Vikita, curing, Elder Brother, a ceremony for young girls (the Cowaka), and the first flute.]
1941 La música de los indios norteamericanos. Boletín Latin-Amercano de Música, Vol. 5, pp. 363-368. Montevideo, Uruguay, Instituto Interamericano de Musicología. [Although not mentioned by name, Papagos are referred to as a southern Arizona tribe whose members use a basket for a drum.]
1942 The study of Indian music. In Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1941, pp. 527-550. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Includes mention of Papago love songs (p. 53), Papago basket drum (p. 545), Papago flute (p. 546), and Papagos in "scope of work" statement (p. 547).]
1943 The use of meaningless syllables in Indian songs. American Anthropologist, Vol. 45, no. 1 (January/March), pp. 160-162. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [Page 161: A Papago lullaby, addressed to a baby admonishing it to go to sleep, is recorded as follows: "Gisuk, black headed gisuk, Run and come so the baby's eyes will go to sleep." The gisuk was said to be a "funny little grey bird that runs on the ground." Thus the crooning sound of the mother in the old days had become a song in the white man's manner.]
1944 Traces of foreign influence in the music of American Indians. American Anthropologist, Vol. 46, no. 1 (January/March), pp. 106-112. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [This essay includes a discussion of the high vocal drone sung by Papago women as well as by a few other Indian groups and by people in Europe and Asia.]
1948a The use of music in the treatment of the sick by American Indians. In Music and medicine, edited by Dorothy Schullian and Max Schoen, pp. 25-46. New York, Henry Schuman. [A reprint of Densmore (1927c). The beliefs and songs of "Owl Woman" of San Xavier are described as is the Papago belief that sickness is caused by an animal or spirit which imparts the secret of its cure to a favored doctor.]
1948b What the Indians knew about musical therapy. Musical Courier, Vol. 137, no. 6 (March 15), p. 5. New York, Musical Periodicals Corporation. [Included here are photos of Papago Indians Sivariano Garcia and of Owl Woman, and a note that Owl Woman got her songs from dead people.]
1950a Communication with the dead as practised by the American Indian. Man, Vol. 50, article 48 (April), pp. 40-41. London, The Royal Anthropological Institute. [The Papago are one of three American Indian tribes whose people told Densmore that the dead come back to talk with the living. Six songs of "Owl Woman," a Papago healer, are recorded as sung by Sivariano Garcia. These songs were taught to Owl Woman by the newly-released spirits of the dead, and each song was taught by a different spirit.]
1950b Folk-songs of the American Indians. Masterkey, Vol. 24, no. 1 (January-February), pp. 14-18. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [Densmore tells about two Papago songs (p. 18), one concerning a squirrel and the other a robin.]
1950c The words of Indian songs as unwritten literature. Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 63, no. 250 (October/December), pp. 450-458. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Folklore Society. [Included here are words from three Papago songs.]
1953 The use of music in the treatment of the sick by American Indians. In Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1952, pp. 439-454. Washington, United States Government Printing Office. [A reprint of Densmore (1948a).]
1954a Importance of rhythm in songs for the treatment of the sick by American Indians. Scientific Monthly, Vol. 79, no. 2 (August), pp. 109-112. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science. [This essay is based in part on Densmore=s field work among Papago Indians, including songs sung by a Papago Indian named Owl Woman and who recorded the songs on the San Xavier Reservation for Papago Indian Sivarino Garcia.]
1954b The music of the American Indian. Southern Folklore Quarterly, Vol. 18, no. 3 (September), pp. 153-156. Gainesville, University of Florida. [This is the text of an address given in 1954. A note at the end says that references in the talk include allusions to Papago songs.]
1956 Examples of American Indian songs. Perspectives USA, no. 16 (Summer), pp. 201-205. Brooklyn, Intercultural Publications, Inc. [Included among the examples are translations into English of the words to four Papago songs.]
1957 Music of the Indians in our western states. Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 70, no. 276 (April/June), pp. 176-178. Virginia, The American Folklore Society. [Three paragraphs are devoted to the author's 1920-1922 fieldwork among Papagos and her recording of 167 Papago songs at San Xavier, Vamori, and Sells.]
1959 The music of the American Indian. In Readings in anthropology. II. Cultural anthropology, edited by Morton H. Fried, pp. 491-495. New York, Crowell. [A reprint of Densmore (1954).]
1962 Songs from north and south. In American Indian poetry, edited by George W. Cronyn, pp. 343-360. New York, Liveright. [This is a reprint on an anthology published as "The path on the rainbow" (Densmore 1934). The lyrics to Papago songs here on pages 352-358 are from "Papago music" (Densmore 1929).]
1968a Death song. Little Square Review, nos. 5-6, p. 23. Santa Barbara, California, Little Square Review. [The lyrics of this Papago song, collected and translated by Densmore, are: AMy heart will go out / In the great night. / The dark rattles / Toward me. / In the great night / My heart will go out.@]
1968b The music of the American Indian. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Vol. 23, pp. 96-98. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. [A reprint of Densmore (1954).]
1968c The poetry of Indian songs. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Vol. 23, pp. 81-93. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. [Reprint of Densmore (1939).]
1968d The study of Indian music. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Vol. 23, pp. 101-114. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. [A reprint of Densmore (1942).]
1972 Papago music. New York, Da Capo Press. xx + 229 pp. [Reprint of Densmore 1929.]
Dentzel, Carl S.
1962 De Grazia the artist. In Padre Kino. Memorable events in the life and times of the immortal priest-colonizer of the Southwest depicted by De Grazia, with commentaries on the artist and his work by noted authorities on Southwestern history and art, edited by Carl S. Dentzel, pp. 43-50. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [About Tucson artist Ted De Grazia and his series of paintings of Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, Dentzel writes, AWhether De Grazia portrays scenes from the life of the ancient people or modern Pima or Papago Indians, of the Apache, Navajo, Yaqui, or Yuma, his work always indicates his vast knowledge of the native people he understands.@]
1966 ...The artist. An evaluation. In APadre Kino,@ by Ted De Grazia, pp. 4-5. Tucson, Gallery in the Sun. [A reprint of Dentzel (1962).]
Dentzel, Carl S., editor
1962 Padre Kino. Memorable events in the life and times of the immortal priest-colonizer of the Southwest depicted by De Grazia, with commentaries on the artist and his work by noted authorities on Southwestern history and art. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. Map, illus. 35 pp. [This is a gathering of a large series of black-and-white illustrations of people, places, and events in the life of Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, pioneer missionary among the Northern Piman Indians. Papago Indians are shown in some of the drawings. There are also essays here by Dentzel as well as by Raymond Carlson, Ross Santee, and Thomas Hart Benton.]
1922 My good Indians at Köldepat-wa ("Old Dead Man's Pond"). Franciscan Herald, Vol. 10, no. 1 (January), pp. 14-15. Chicago, Friars Minor of the Sacred Heart Province. [Father Justin tells about construction and dedication of a new chapel at "Old Dead Man's Pond" on November 3, 1921. Dedicated to St. Thomas, the adobe chapel is 24'x14'x8' high. He says people built the church by themselves. Photos show a Sonoran Catholic chapel, Santa Clara Mission church and school at Anegam, and an unnamed mission chapel.]
1934 Desert missions. Our Negro and Indian Missions, January, pp. 31, 40. Washington, D.C., Commission for Catholic Missions among the Colored People and the Indians. [Mention is made of the need to find a way to continue the school at Mission San Xavier del Bac in view of the fact that the nuns teaching there are no longer government employees. There are additional mentions of Papagos as well.]
Development Planning and Research Associates
1975 Operational program for the Papago livestock facility. Manhattan, Kansas, Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc. [This is a report to the U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, one recommending an operational/management program designed to maximize the usefulness of the Papago Livestock Facility to the Papago Tribe and to its individual members.]
Devens, Monica S.
1979 Papago cim. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 45, no. 4 (October), pp. 349-352. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. [About the meaning of the particle /cim/ as used in Pima and Papago. She uses data from a single Pima informant to contrast with linguistic data gathered by Kenneth Hale from Papagos.]
1979a Basket shopping in Papagoland. Arizona Highways, Vol. 55, no. 11 (November), pp. 38-44. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Eleven photos accompany this article about Papago baskets and where to buy them on the reservation.]
1979b The Papago Indians and their basketry. Tucson, Terry DeWald. Illus. 48 pp. [Lavish with color and black-and-white illustrations, this little booklet, in telling about the types and techniques of Papago basketry, also offers an outline of Papago history and customs, a sketch of Christianity among Papagos, a few paragraphs concerning Mission San Xavier del Bac, a few words on the reservation and its inhabitants, and a summary of such other crafts as pottery, woodwork, doll carving, painting, silversmithing, and the making of riatas, horsehair baskets, and wire baskets. Author/publisher DeWald is a wholesaler/retailer of Indian crafts on the reservation.]
Diamos, Alexandra M.
1973 Tucson incunabula. [Tucson], Alexandra María Diamos. Illus. 35 pp. [Included in this odd little gathering of reminiscences, a two-act drama, and other essays concerning Tucson is an illustrated 4-paragraph discussion of "É-e-toy in a Maze," including the fact that this maze design appears on Papago baskets. There is an essay (pp. 11-13) about the "Little Miracles of San Xavier," stories about miracles effected through prayers by Mexicans to the figure of San Francisco that reclines in the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac, and there are reprinted excerpts (pp. 3-5) from William Kurath's A brief introduction to Papago, a native language of Arizona (Tucson: University of Arizona, 1945).]
Díaz, Juan. See Bolton, translator and editor, 1930p, q, and t
1986 Mission San Xavier del Bac, begun in 1783 and completed in 1797, ministers to the Papago Indians. Arizona Highways, Vol. 62, no. 2 (February), p. 12. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [The title is the caption for a color photo by Dietrich-Leis of Mission San Xavier del Bac at sunset.]
1928 Les cactacées utiles du Mexique. Archives d'Histoire Naturelle, Vol. 4. Paris, Société Nationale d'Acclimatation. [Mention is made (p. 395) of the use by Papagos of saguaro ribs in their architecture.]
Dillon, Richard H.
1983 North American Indian wars. New York, Facts on File, Inc. [There is brief mention of Papagos on page 180 in connection with their involvement in the 1871 Camp Grant Massacre in which Papagos and non-Indians killed unsuspecting Apaches in their settlement near Camp Grant in southern Arizona.]
1990 Arizona=s Casa Grande. Motorland, March/April, pp. 33, 85. San Francisco, California State Automobile Association. [In writing about the prehistoric Casa Grande ruins in southern Arizona Dillon notes that, A... south of Tubac the Americans encountered the hulk of the abandoned church of San Jose de Tumacacori, still impressive today. Just short of Tucson they found the whitewashed mission church of the Papago Indians, Mission San Xavier del Bac, then and now admired for its beauty as the White Dove of the Desert.@]
Dimmitt, Mark A.
1987 ASDM's rare plant programs. sonorensis, Vol. 8, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 14-15. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. [Mention is made of the fact that the Tumamoc globe-berry (Tumamoca macdougalii) is fairly common on the Papago Indian Reservation.]
2000a Agavaceae (agave family); Nolinaceae (nolina family). In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp.155-164. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [AUntil a few decades ago,@ writes Dimmitt, Athe Tohono O=odham wove beautiful sleeping mats by plaiting together sotol leaves after removing marginal teeth from the leaves.@ He also notes that the leaves of Yucca elata Ayield the major basketry fiber for the Tohono O=odham, who know how to harvest the tender new leaves in a way that promotes branching instead of killing the plant.@]
2000b Asteraceae or Compositae (sunflower family). In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp.155-164. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [The gum of brittlebush (Encelia farinsoa) Awas once exported to Europe by the mission priests and is still used by the Tohono O=odham.@]
2000c Cactaceae (cactus family). In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp.183-218. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [It is noted (p. 193), AThe beginning of the Tohono O=odham year is the >Saguaro Harvest Moon.= In June and early July, O=odham live in temporary camps in the saguaro forests and conduct the saguaro fruit harvest (hasañ bahidaj). Women use poles made from saguaro ribs to knock off the saguaro fruit. The pulp is boiled down into a syrup. Some of the syrup is used to make a wine that is consumed during the rainmaking ceremony. The seeds are dried and used in the winter as a snack, or ground into flour and made into a gruel. Saguaro fruit is nutritious, containing 10 percent protein and 70 percent carbohydrates; the seeds are 30 percent fat.@
Concerning the genus Opuntia, APeople who live with and use these plants recognize even more differences between them than do botanists. Juanita Ahil was a Tohono O=odham who lived in the desert near Sells, Arizona. Ecologist Tony Burgess could recognize two species of Opuntia growing in Juanita=s yard. Juanita was able to distinguished (sic) five different kinds from the appearance of the prickly pear pads alone. Later, the characteristics of the fruits these plants produced confirmed that she was correct; the fruits differed accordingly in color, taste, and keeping qualities@ (p. 208).
Dimmitt also notes (p. 194) that the organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi) occurs in Arizona principally in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument and the adjacent Tohono O=odham Indian Reservation.]
2000d Fabaceae (legume family). In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp.155-164. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [AVelvet mesquite had been a major food source for indigenous peoples. ... The Tohono O=odham appear to be on the verge of commercial success with this crop.@]
2000e Pedaliaceae (sesame family). In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp.155-164. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [Dimmitt notes that a white-seeded variety of Proboscidea parviflora, hohokamiana (devil=s claw), Ais a cultivar developed by the O=odham. ... The black fibers in the claws are used in basket-making, especially by the Tohono O=odham. ... This is one of the few plants domesticated north of Mexico, and this seems to have been accomplished only late on the last (19th) century.@]
2002 Giant columnar cacti: saguaro and cardón. Newsletter, Vol. 3, no. 2 (March-April), pp. 1-4. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. [Writes Dimmitt: ASaguaros are even more important to the O=odham peoples who have lived in their habitat for centuries. The high esteem O=odham have for saguaros is reflected in their many creation stories for this plant, which tend to share the common theme of people being turned into saguaros. These giant cacti are not only plants to the Tohono O=odham; they are another part of humanity.@]
Dinges, Bruce J., editor
1985 A New York private in Arizona Territory. The letters of George Cranston, 1867-1870. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 26, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 53-76. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. [Private Cranston makes several references to Papagos in the military service on the side of the United States in Arizona in 1867. He writes of whole companies of Papago Indians.]
1972 Visitors to the reservation in the 1970s can still find Papagos dwelling in stick houses like this one from 1894. In Arizona, its people and resources, revised 2nd edition by the faculty of the University of Arizona, p. 75. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Although printed without attribution, this is a black-and-white photo taken by Dinwiddie of a Papago household scene in 1894 during the W J McGee expedition to Seriland through the Papaguería.]
Diocese of Tucson. Installation Committee.
1982 Liturgy of installation for the Most Rev. Manuel D. Moreno as the Fifth Bishop of Tucson. Tucson, Installation Committee, Diocese of Tucson. Illus. 20 pp. [This is the program for the installation of Manuel Moreno as the Fifth (Roman Catholic) Bishop of Tucson. The Papago man-in-the-maze figure adorns the booklet=s cover, and on page 3 it is noted that Indian dances would be performed by the Covered Wells Papago Indian Dancers.]
Di Peso, Charles C.
1953a "The Sobaipuri Indians of the upper San Pedro River Valley, southeastern Arizona." Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Maps, illus. bibl. 405 pp. [This is a study of the Northern Piman group of peoples known to Spaniards as the "Sobaipuri" Indians, some of whom were resident at San Xavier del Bac in the 18th century. It is based on documentary research and on archaeological excavations at a site Di Peso presumed to have been that of the Sobaipuri village of Quiburi but which, in fact, was solely the 18th-century Spanish presidio of Santa Cruz de Terrenate. Architecture, arts, crafts, trade goods, and skeletal remains found in the excavations are described in illustrated detail.]
1953b The Sobaipuri Indians of the upper San Pedro River Valley, southeastern Arizona [Amerind Foundation, Inc., no. 6]. Dragoon, Arizona, The Amerind Foundation, Inc. Maps, illus., bibl. xii + 285 pp. [This is the published form of Di Peso (1953a).]
1956 The Upper Pima of San Cayetano del Tumacacori [Amerind Foundation, Inc., no. 7]. Dragoon, Arizona, The Amerind Foundation, Inc. Maps, illus., bibl. xxiv + 589 pp. [This is a thorough and detailed report on excavations by Di Peso at the Paloparado Ruin on the middle Santa Cruz Valley in southern Arizona. He believed it to be the Piman site of Tumacacori first visited by Father Eusebio Francisco Kino in 1691, with the result that the report is replete with information on aboriginal Piman Indians gleaned from historic and ethnographic sources. The likelihood, however, is that the site is primarily prehistoric/protohistoric, with little or no indisputable Piman occupation. This is especially so in that Kino showed the site on the east side of the Santa Cruz River on his maps, whereas the Paloparado ruin is on the west side.]
1975 Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, S.J., comes to Cochise County. The Cochise Quarterly, Vol. 5, nos. 2 & 3 (Summer & Fall), pp. 5-6. Douglas, Arizona, Cochise County Historical and Archaeological Society. [A discussion of what Di Peso calls "American Ootam (Piman) Chichimecan culture" in the San Pedro Valley of southeastern Arizona at the time of 16th through early 18th-century Spanish contact.]
1976 The other revolution. Archaeology, Vol. 29, no. 3 (July), pp. 186-193. New York, Archaeological Institute of America. [In this illustrated article archaeologist Di Peso asserts that Papago Indians aided in the construction of the Presidio de Santa Cruz de Terrenate in southeastern Arizona.]
1978 The Hohokam and Ootam. In Programs and Abstracts, Forty-third annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, May 4-6, p. 34. Washington, D.C., Society for American Archaeology. [This is a one-paragraph abstract of a talk given by Di Peso in which he proposed that the Upper Pima and Papago were part of an older Ootam cultural continuum going back to a common indigenous pre-pottery Cochise Culture origin.]
1979a Prehistory: O'otam. In Handbook of North American Indians, edited by William C. Sturtevant, Vol. 9, Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 91-99. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. [This is an excellent summary, including a map and illustrations, of Di Peso's beliefs concerning the prehistory of all Piman Indians, including the Papagos and west Papagos ("Sobas").]
1979b Prehistory: southern periphery. In Handbook of North American Indians, edited by William C. Sturtevant, Vol. 9, Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 152-161. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. [Di Peso says that the indigenous prehistoric Trinchera people came to be known to Spaniards as the Soba O=otam (p. 161).]
1981 Discussion of Masse, Doelle, Sheridan, and Reff papers from Southwestern Protohistory Conference. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 24, pp. 113-128. Tempe, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University. [This is a critical evaluation of the essays by Masse (1981) and Doelle (1981) and their interpretation of early Piman history and late prehistory.]
1985 Displaced Native Americans of the Gran Chichimeca. In The archaeology of west and northwest Mesoamerica, edited by Michael S. Foster and Phil C. Weigand, pp. 431-437. Boulder and London, Westview Press. [Relying heavily on a 1695 diary kept by the Spanish soldier Juan Fernándes de la Fuente, Di Peso draws on late 17th-century Spanish accounts in discussing the "pacification" by Spaniards of the Piman-speaking Indians of Sonora.]
Dittert, Alfred E., Jr.
1987 Analysis of selected ceramics from the San Xavier Archaeological Project. In The San Xavier Archaeological Project [Southwest Cultural Series, No. 1, Vol. 4], by Laurie V. Slawson, Henry D. Wallace, and Alfred E. Dittert, Jr., appendix A6. Tucson, Cultural & Environmental Systems, Inc. [This is a Across-sectional analysis of prehistoric, protohistoric and historic ceramics from the San Xavier Archaeological Project. Data resulting from a detailed technical analysis of a select group of decorated, red and plain ware ceramics from the proposed area (on the San Xavier Reservation) are presented; however, the study focuses on red ware.@ This includes historic Papago ceramics, including Papago Red.]
Dixon, Roland B.
1923 The racial history of man. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. Maps, illus, bibl., index. 583 pp. [Writes Dixon (p. 421): "The Papago and Pima may tentatively be added to the list of tribes with these characteristics (brachycephalic-platyrrhine), although the practice of cranial deformation makes the determination of their type doubtful." He cites no authority in asserting Pimans practiced cranial deformation.]
Dixon, Winifred H.
1921 Westward hoboes. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. Illus. 377 pp. [Mission San Xavier del Bac is discussed on pages 74-78, including the Papagos' relation to it. One black-and-white photo (facing p. 78) shows the main doorway of the church, and facing page 76 there is a photo captioned, "San Xavier del Bac, Tucson, and the Rapago (sic) Indian Village."]
Dobosh, Rebecca S.
1996 The repatriation standoff: tribes are vying for burial rights to Native American skeletons. Archaeology, Vol. 49, March/April, pp. 12-13. New York, Archaeological Institute of America. [Eleven Arizona tribes are requesting burial rights to more than a thousand prehistoric Native American remains excavated near Roosevelt Dam. Among them are the Tohono O=odham, who want the remains buried on one of their reservations.]
Dobyns, Henry F.
1949 Report on investigations on the Papago Reservation. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University. Maps. 74 pp. Mimeographed. [These investigations were carried out in the summer of 1949 under the direction of Edward H. Spicer, with recommendations by staff members and students of Cornell University field class, Sociology/Anthropology 642. Most work was undertaken on the Sells Reservation and included studies of water development, bolsas agriculture, and dourine eradication. References to the San Xavier Reservation are on pages 1, 2, 4, 5, and 11. Copy on file in the Arizona State Museum library.]
1950 Papago pilgrims on the town. Kiva, Vol. 16, nos. 1-2 (October/November), pp. 27-32. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [This is a discussion of Papago pilgrimages to Magdalena, Sonora, during the fiesta of San Francisco Xavier in October. Includes information with respect to Papagos in connection with lodging, recreation, and trade. There is a photo of the fiesta on page 32.]
1951a Blunders with bolsas. Human Organization, Vol. 10, no. 3 (Fall), pp. 25-32. New York, The Society for Applied Anthropology. [This is a highly critical case study of the diffusion of closed-basin agriculture or the bolsa system of agriculture carried out on the Papago Reservation at Sells, Arizona.]
1951b Papagos in the cotton fields, 1950. Tucson, privately printed (mimeographed). Map, illus., bibl. iv + 140 pp. [This is a report on the role of Papagos in the cotton harvest on Anglo-owned irrigated lands near Papago tribal reservations. It provides an example of the adjustment of members of an Indian tribe to demands arising from close and intimate contact with an increasing Anglo population majority, and to the Indians' insufficient land base. Many photos are included, including scenes of Papagos at the annual October fiesta in Magdalena, Sonora.]
1952a Arizona tribal leaders. Kiva, Vol. 18, nos. 1-2 (September/October), p. 8. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Thomas A. Segundo, Chairman of the Papago Tribal Council, is shown in a photo with other tribal officials who participated in an Institute of American Indian Assimilation conference in Washington, D.C., May 8-10, 1952.]
1952b Experiment in conservation: erosion control and forage production on the Papago Indian Reservation in Arizona. In Human problems in technological change, edited by Edward H. Spicer, pp. 209-223. New York, Russell Sage Foundation. [A presentation of problems and solutions concerning soil conservation which the Papago faced in the later part of the 1940s. The problems were largely solved by a soil conservationist of the Papago Indian Agency.]
1952c The plight of the Papagos. Frontier, Vol. 3, no. 5 (March), pp. 13-14. Beverly Hills, California. [A brief discussion of the problems confronting the Papago, including those involving economy, health, and education. Dobyns also talks about the Papago Development Program completed in 1948 but on which as of 1952 the U.S. Congress had failed to act. He asserts that Congressional action could improve problems currently confronting the Papago.]
1952d Thirsty Indians: introduction of wells among people of an arid region. Human Organization, Vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 33-36. New York, The Society for Applied Anthropology. [This concerns how the lack of water affects the lifestyle of the Papago Indians living in or near the Papaguería. Papago farming techniques are briefly described, and it is noted that Papago ceremonialism was concerned first and foremost with bringing rain to the desert. The importance of wells in the area is also stressed.]
1955 The case of paint vs. garlic. Arizona Quarterly, Vol. 11, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 156-160. Tucson, University of Arizona. [This is about the place name "Ajo," a mining town in western Pima County, Arizona. Dobyns argues that the origin of ajo is a Papago word (au'auho) for "paint," and that it has been Hispanicized into the Spanish word, ajo, for "garlic."]
1957 A Papago victory in 1854. Kiva, Vol. 23, no. 1 (October), pp. 11-12. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Dobyns writes about the significance of a news items that appeared in El Nacional, the official gazette of Sonora, on November 24, 1854 praising the Papago Indians for their victory over Apache raiders.]
1959 Some Spanish pioneers in upper Pimería. Kiva, Vol. 25, no. 1 (October), pp. 18-21. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Most of the pioneers discussed here were Franciscan missionaries who served in the Pimería Alta missions. Mentioned are the missions of Tumacácori, Caborca, San Ignacio, Atil, Pitiquito, and San Xavier del Bac.]
1960 "The religious festival." Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 496 pp. [A large section of this dissertation concerns the annual fiesta of San Francisco de Asís held each October in Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico. It is one of the most important festivals in the historic-period Papago religious calendar.]
1962 Pioneering Christians among the perishing Indians of Tucson. Lima, Peru, Editorial Estudios Andinos. Bibl. 36 pp. [This booklet discusses Jesuit and Franciscan missionary activities in the Pimería Alta, especially at San Xavier del Bac and Tucson. Northern Piman depopulation in the lower Santa Cruz Valley is the subject of the final chapter.]
1963a Indian extinction in the middle Santa Cruz River Valley, Arizona. New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 38, no. 2 (April), pp. 163-181. Santa Fe, Historical Society of New Mexico; Albuquerque, University of New Mexico. [Epidemics and endemic disease as well as Apache raids are cited as causes for the reduction in the native Piman population of the middle Santa Cruz Valley of southern Arizona. Reduction of numbers of desert Papagos who had moved into the region is also discussed (pp. 175-176).]
1963b Tubac: where some enemies rotted. Arizona Quarterly, Vol. 19, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 229-232. Tucson, The University of Arizona. [Writing on the etymology of the word ATubac,@ Dobyns asserts, AThe contemporary place-name Tubac is an English borrowing of a Hispanicized form of an original Northern Piman designation.@ He writes that some enemies attacked the Piman settlement at Tubac where some of them were killed. ATheir bodies lay there and were putrefied, so that place came to be called Tchoowaka, or literally >rotten.= By extension, the place carries the full connotation of >Place Where Some Enemies Rotted= to a speaker of Northern Piman familiar with the explanation.@]
1964 Lance, ho! Containment of the Western Apaches by the Royal Spanish Garrison at Tucson. Lima, Peru, Editorial Estudios Andinos. Bibl. 47 pp. [This is a sequel to Dobyns (1962), one that covers the Spanish period history of Tucson from ca. 1775 to 1790. The role of Northern Pimans in this account is set fort in detail, including mention of Pimans from San Xavier del Bac.]
1972a Military transculturation of Northern Piman Indians, 1782-1821. Ethnohistory, Vol. 19, no. 4 (Fall), pp. 323-343. Tucson, American Society for Ethnohistory. [This is an examination of cultural consequences of intimate contact between Northern Piman Indians (Pimas and Papagos) and Spaniards during the period between 1782 and 1821. This contact was made possible through the establishment of military posts, presidios, where Pimans served as troops in Spanish garrisons.]
1972b The Papago people. Phoenix, Indian Tribal Series. Maps, illus., bibl. 106 pp. [This short, easy-to-read book discusses Papago Indians both historically and in a modern context. Major subject areas include dialect groupings (p. 10); the distant approach of Spaniards (p. 17); Spanish-period rule (p. 20); Papagos as Mexican peasants (p. 33); and U.S. sovereignty (p. 41). Scattered references to San Xavier are throughout. Photos in both color and black-and-white.]
1974 The Kohatk: oasis and ak chin agriculturalists. Ethnohistory, Vol. 21, no. 4 Fall), pp. 317-327. Tucson, American Society for Ethnohistory. [The Kohatk are a northern "Papago" group, and their modern villages (with the exception of Santan) are on the Papago Indian Reservation. "Late 17th century Spanish colonial documents and Northern Piman place-names reveal that the Kohatk tribe then exploited a complex environmental niche including at least one middle Gila River oasis and several settlements with ephemeral water supplies on the desert south of the permanent stream. Juan de Palacios provided both socio-economic and political leadership to his tribe."]
1976a Breves comentarios acerca de cierta ceguera cultural evidente en las investigaciones sobre horticultura indígena americana. In Sonora: antropología del desierto [Colección Científica Diversa, 27], coordinated by Beatriz Braniff C. and Richard S. Felger, pp. 125-130. México, SEP, Instituto Nacional Antropología e Historia, Centro Regional del Noroeste. [This essay extolling the historical and cultural importance of plants in the Amaranthus and Chenopodium genera notes the presence of amaranth found in the prehistoric site of Punta de Agua on the San Xavier Indian Reservation (p. 127).]
1976b La situación actual del indígena y "la raza" en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos. América Indígena, Vol. 36, no. 4 (octubre/diciembre), pp. 831-846. México, Instituto Indigenista Inter-americano. [There is passing mention of Papagos throughout, including mention (p. 843) of the pilgrimage to Magdalena, Sonora that takes place early each October.]
1976c Spanish colonial Tucson. A demographic history. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Map, appendices, bibl., index. x + 246 pp. [The role of Northern Pimans (including Papagos) in the demographic history of Spanish-period Tucson, ca. 1694-1800, is considered throughout the book. Appendices include tables showing names and numbers of Papagos in Tucson at various times throughout the period.]
1978 Ethnohistory and human resource development. Ethnohistory, Vol. 25, no. 2 (Spring), pp. 103-120. Tucson, American Society for Ethnohistory. [In discussing the role of ethnohistory in projects concerning human resource development, Dobyns cites several examples based on his own research among Papago Indians.]
1981 From fire to flood: historic human destruction of Sonoran Desert riverine oases. Ballena Press Anthropological Papers, no. 20. Socorro, New Mexico, Ballena Press. [This account of the destruction of oases environments in the Sonoran Desert by human beings contains scattered mention throughout of various groups of Papago Indians. There is also considerable discussion of erosion in various parts of the Papago country (e.g., Vamori Wash, p. 70; the area around Mission San Xavier del Bac, pp. 60-64).]
1984 Trade centers: the concept and a rancherian culture area example. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 23-35. Los Angeles, American Indian Studies Center, University of California at Los Angeles. [Mentioned briefly is the amicable relationship between the Hitatk Au'autam (Sand Papagos) and the Quechans and their hostile relationship with the Cocopa and the Imuris (Sonoran riverine Pimans).]
1988 Piman Indian historic agave cultivation. Desert Plants, Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 49-53. Superior, The University of Arizona. [Dobyns extrapolates from Spanish-period accounts of Southern Pimans' uses of agave to infer the same or similar practices for Northern Pimans.]
1990 Prehistoric to historic transitions: chronological considerations. In Perspectives on Southwestern prehistory, edited by Paul E. Minnis and Charles L. Redman, pp. 301-307. Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford, Westview Press. [Dobyns notes that in the 19th century "Papago" potters specialized in ceramic "export" while going through "a revolution of rising expectations," hoping to acquire cash to buy metal tools and utensils, ready-made clothing, etc. "Families, including men, women, and children, travelled to Hispanic and new Anglo-American towns and villages to make water-storage ollas for colonist customers." He cites an article from the Tucson Citizen of June 21, 1873 concerning the time spent by Papago potters in the winter quarrying clay, shaping, firing, and selling ollas (and harvesting wild grass for sale).]
1991 Do-it-yourself religion: the diffusion of folk Catholicism on Mexico's northern frontier, 1821-46. In Pilgrimage in Latin America, edited by N. Ross Crumrine, pp. 53-68. New York [etc. etc.], Greenwood Press. [The diffusion considered is that of folk Catholicism among the Tohono O'odham (Papago Indians) of today's northern Sonora and southern Arizona. The thesis is presented that Catholicism spread and thrived among Papagos under Franciscan administration of the missions in the region after 1768. AThe socioreligious mechanism that spread folk Catholicism among unmissioned northern Piman-speakers was a pilgrimage festival,@ the annual October 4 celebration in Magdalena, Sonora. Dobyns describes in detail the pilgrimage to Magdalena from the Papago village of Kaka and the manner in which it was organized and carried out.]
1994 Inter-ethnic fighting in Arizona: counting the cost of conquest. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 35, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 163-182. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. [Dobyns makes the case that they were Maricopas, rather than Papagos, who were involved in a fight against fur trapper James Ohio Pattie in 1827.]
1995 Tubac through four centuries. An historical resume and analysis. Tubac, Arizona, Tubac Presidio State Historic Park. Illus., bibl. xv + 216 pp. [Prepared originally in 1959, this report provides an exhaustive history of Tubac, Arizona, from protohistoric times to 1857. Included are chapters on the Piman origin and meaning of the place name "Tubac"; on "Aboriginal Piman Society"; the "Deterioration of Northern Piman Society from 1520 to 1729"; "Christian Conversion"; and "The Pima Revolt of 1751." Further elucidated are the roles of Pimans in later Spanish and Mexican society at Tubac and elsewhere in the Pimería Alta.]
1998 Military conquest of colonial Arizona territory. In A good Cherokee, a good anthropologist, edited by Steve Pavlik, pp. 275-279. Los Angeles, University of California, American Indian Studies Center. [Dobyns estimates the numbers of reported historic battle casualties suffered by Indians within the present boundaries of Arizona at the hands of non-Indians, whether Spaniards, Mexicans, or Anglos. He writes that Aduring European and Euro-American wars of conquest,@ 556 Northern Pimans, or 9.3% of the population, were casualties. He also observes that in1698 the Pimans at Imuris were allied with the Spaniards.]
Dobyns, Henry F., and Robert C. Euler
1980 Indians of the Southwest. A critical bibliography. Bloomington, Indiana University Press. xx + 153 pp. [A discussion of published materials relating to Northern Pimans, including Papagos, is on pages 60-67.]
Dobyns, Henry F., and Paul H. Ezell
1959 Sonoran missionaries in 1790. New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 34, no. 1 (January), pp. 52-54. Santa Fe, Historical Society of New Mexico; Albuquerque, University of New Mexico. [Reproduced here is a list compiled January 3, 1791, by Henrique de Grimarest, a Spanish royal official, of what are purported to have been all the missions in the province of Sonora. The name of the Franciscan serving each mission is given along with the amount of his annual royal stipend. The Pimería Alta missions included are those at Tubutama, Atil, Caborca, San Ignacio, San Xavier del Bac, Cocóspera, Tumacácori, and Saric. The Saric jurisdiction also covered that of the placer mining area of Cieneguilla.]
Dobyns, Henry F.; Paul H. Ezell, Alden W. Jones, and Greta S. Ezell
1960 What were Nixoras? Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 16, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 230-258. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico. [The authors write about the term variously spelled Nijor or Nixora that appears frequently in Spanish documents in the eighteenth century in the Pimería Alta and elsewhere. They make a convincing case that the term was not a tribal designation, but was instead a term used to label Aany Indian from any tribe who had been captured and classified in slave-status.@ The principal eighteenth-century documents examined by the authors in making their case are registers from the Pimería Alta missions of Pitiquito and Caborca.]
Dobyns, Henry F., Richard W. Stoffle, and Kristine Jones
1975 Native American urbanization and socio-economic integration in the southwestern United States. Ethnohistory, Vol. 22, no. 2 (Spring), pp. 155-179. Tucson, American Society for Ethnohistory. [While primarily about the growth of "agency towns" on other Indian reservations, the Papago Reservation and its agency town of Sells is mentioned on page 157 as an example of the nucleation-urbanization phenomenon. Papagos in Ajo are mentioned in passing on page 159 and again on pages 176-177 where it is mentioned that Papago lands there were preempted and Papagos became a labor force in non-Indian mining operations. Papagos are mentioned as cattle raisers on page 175.]
Dockstader, Frederick J., compiler
1957 The American Indian in graduate studies: a bibliography of theses and dissertations. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Vol. 15. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Index. 399 pp. [There are twenty-three theses and dissertations dealing with Papago Indians listed in the index.]
1973 Indian art of the Americas. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Maps, illus., bibl. 304 pp. [Papagos are mentioned on page 17 along with other Southwest tribes.]
Dockstader, Frederick J., and Alice W. Dockstader, compilers
1974 The American Indian in graduate studies: a bibliography of theses and dissertations. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Vol. 25, part 2. New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. [This is a continuation of Dockstader (1957), one that lists forty-nine theses and dissertations relating to Papago Indians, twenty-six of which are new and listed in this volume.]
Dodge, Ida F.
2003 The Courtship of Captain Aguilar. Bourbonnais, Illinois, The Bronte Press. Illus. 25 pp. [This miniature book includes a brief biographical sketch of author Dodge as well as an excerpt from and precis of a novel-length manuscript reclining in the library of the Arizona Historical Society in Tucson. The setting for the novel, whose author was born in Arizona in 1879 and who died in 1955, is largely Mission San Xavier del Bac and Tucson. The period in this excerpt, at least, is post 1810 and pre-1821. It involves a captain from the Tucson Presidio, a Franciscan priest, and a beautiful blonde women who is the apple of the captain=s eye and who, he fears, might become a nun rather than his wife.]
Dodge, Natt N.
1941 "Godfather of the Organ Pipes." Arizona Highways, Vol. 14, no. 4 (April), pp. 10-15, 37-39. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [This overview of the history, geography, and natural history of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument quotes park custodian Bill Supernaugh as saying, "Over in the southwestern corner of the monument ... at Quitobaquito Spring, live some Papago Indians; old Jose Juan and his family. Their houses, near the spring, are on the monument, but their fields of wheat and alfalfa are across the line in Mexico. They harvest their wheat and thresh it by hand, then grind it into flour with a heavy, old mill stone turned by a burro." And Supernaugh mistakenly translates Quitobaquito as a Papago word meaning "small springs" and he garbles the story of the 1751 destruction of the Catholic mission at Sonoyta, mis-translated as "Place-Where-Corn-Will-Grow.@]
1942 Mi amigo ... saguaro. Arizona Highways, Vol. 18, no. 5 (May), pp. 8-13, 39. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [Pages 10-11 make note of Papagos' uses of saguaro ribs for ramada roofs; of their harvesting the fruit of saguaro and organ pipe cactus since aboriginal times; and of their saguaro wine-drinking ceremony that brings rain and initiates the Papagos' calendar year.]
Doelle, William H.
1976 Desert resources and Hohokam subsistence: the Conoco Florence project. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series, no. 103. Tucson, Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona.. Maps, illus., appendices, refs. cited. xvii + 278 pp. [In an effort to understand the behavior of prehistoric Indians who lived in an area of roughly twelve square miles located just northwest of Florence, Arizona, Doelle draws on the history and ethnography of historic and modern Pima and Papago Indians. A chapter entitled, "Wild Plant Utilizations: Models and Ethnographic Observations" (pp. 49-83) draws almost exclusively on observations of modern Papagos for data on the gathering and preparation of mesquite beans, saguaro fruit, and cholla buds. These activities are illustrated in fifteen black-and-white photographs.]
1980 "Past adaptive patterns in western Papaguería: an archaeological study of non-riverine resource use." Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson. 363 pp. [An archaeological study of an area adjacent to the Mohawk Mountains in the western Papaguería draws on historical and ethnographic sources relating to Papago Indians for its insights and some of its conclusions. The question is one of how human beings survived in an areas bereft of perennial streams and of minimal rainfall.]
1981 The Gila Pima in the late seventeenth century. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 24, pp. 57-70. Tempe, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University. [In a discussion in which Doelle concludes it is unlikely Gila River Pima Indians were practicing irrigation agriculture at the time of their initial contact with Spaniards, Doelle makes reference to Pimans at San Xavier del Bac and elsewhere to the south.]
1983 Archaeological and historical investigations at Nolic, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona. Final report. With contributions by Lee Fratt, Suzanne K. Fish, Charles H. Miksicek, and Christine E. Szuter. Institute for American Research Anthropological Papers, no. 2. [Tucson], Institute for American Research. [A detailed history of Nolic and environs based on documentary and oral resources and a well-illustrated report on the archaeology of two Nolic households whose ruined and buried remains lay in the path of a new highway through this Papago Reservation village. Nolic was begun as a Papago settlement in the 1880s.]
1984 The Tucson Basin during the protohistoric period. Kiva, Vol. 49, nos. 304 (Spring/Summer), pp. 195-211. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Principally a discussion of events believed to have occurred in the Tucson Basin in the period A.D. 1692-1702, largely involving native Pimans (i.e., "Pimas," "Papagos," "Sobaipuris," etc.).]
1985 Excavations at the Valencia site: a preclassic Hohokam village in the southern Tucson Basin. Anthropological Papers, no. 3. [Tucson], Institute for American Research. [A report on excavations of a prehistoric archaeological site between Tucson and the San Xavier Reservation on the east bank of the Santa Cruz River. There is brief mention of the Pimans first encountered in the vicinity by Europeans in the late 17th and early 18th centuries (p. 16). Allusion is also made to geological studies on the San Xavier Indian Reservation (pp. 7-8).]
1990 Thousand year old census: Tucson in A.D. 990. Archaeology in Tucson, Vol. 4, no. 2 (Spring), pp. -. Tucson, Center for Desert Archaeology. [Doelle recounts observations on numbers of houses and people ;living in the Tucson area in the 1690s when visited by Captain Juan Mateo Manje, Father Eusebio Kino, and other Spaniards.]
2003 Back sight. Archaeology Southwest, Vol. 17, no. 3 (Summer), p. 20. Tucson, Center for Desert Archaeology. [Doelle elaborates on a visit he made with Daniel Preston, a man who Agrew up at San Xavier on the Tohono O=odham Reservation. He was involved with archaeology and archaeologists for many years through his role as vice chairman of the San Xavier District.@ Doelle recounts their visiting the San Pedro River Valley in southeastern Arizona, Preston=s first visit to the area.]
2004 Back sight. Archaeology Southwest, Vol. 18, no. 1 (Winter), p. 16. Tucson, Center for Desert Archaeology. [Doelle recounts a project to unravel the history of the San Pedro River Valley of southeastern Arizona, one that involved consultants from various tribes whose people had either once lived there or who had utilized its resources. On November 6, 2003, representatives of the Hopi and Tohono O=odham met in Tucson to discuss various cultural traditions, noting similarities and differences in their experiences and beliefs. A photo shows Ida Ortega, a Tohono O=odham, as she visits the site of the Puebloan Reeve Ruin near the San Pedro River.]
Doelle, William H., and Susan A. Brew
1976 An archaeological survey of proposed housing locations in Sells and Vaya Chin, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona. Archaeological Series, no. 107. Tucson, Cultural Resources Management Section, Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona. [In assessing the potential impact of housing projects to be implemented at Sells and Vaya Chin, the coauthors delve briefly into the history of these two settlements and report on the archaeological remains found within the housing site areas.]
Doelle, William H.; Allen Dart, and Henry D. Wallace
1985 The southern Tucson Basin survey: intensive survey along the Santa Cruz River. Technical Report, no. 85-3. [Tucson], Institute for American Research. [Report of an intensive archaeological survey carried out on fifteen square miles just to the east of the eastern boundary of the San Xavier Indian Reservation. Nearly all the sites reported are prehistoric Hohokam or earlier, although one historic-period site (pp. 51-52) dated between 1880 and 1920 and had sherds of red-slipped Papago pottery on it. Data are also noted here from a separate archaeological survey of the San Xavier Reservation.]
Doelle, William H., and J. Homer Thiel
2001 Tucson: a short history. Archaeology Southwest, Vol. 15, no. 2 (Spring), pp. 2-3. Tucson, Center for Desert Archaeology. [Accompanied by a map, an early 1900s photo, and an 1852 sketch, the focus here is on the site of the visita of San Agustín del Tucson. Mention is made of the "small ranchería of O'odham-speaking Sobaipuris" who lived here at the foot of "A" Mountain. There are also references to San Xavier del Bac and visits there by Father Kino in the late 17th century as well as to completion of a church there by 1757.]
Doelle, William H., and Henry D. Wallace
1986 Hohokam settlement patterns in the San Xavier project area, southern Tucson Basin. Technical Report, no. 84-6. [Tucson], Institute for American Research. 143 pp. [A report on Hohokam archaeological sites within a 28 square mile area of the San Xavier Indian Reservation, one based on archaeological site survey.]
1990 The transition to history in Pimería Alta. In Perspectives on Southwestern prehistory, edited by Paul E. Minnis and Charles L. Redman, pp. 239-257. Boulder, and Francisco, and Oxford, Westview Press. [This essay concerns connections, or the lack of them, between late-period Hohokam in the Gila/Salt Basin and in the Tucson Basin and southern desert and the historically-present Pima and Papago Indians. The authors see a linkage in the south but not in the Phoenix region.]
1923 In Red Man's land. Casa Grande, Arizona, The "Trust in God" Publishing Company. Illus. 62 pp. [A religious tract aimed toward saving the souls of Indians, this book includes references to Papagos on pages 11-12 (poverty experienced by Papagos during seasons of drought) and 28-32 (a general discussion of Papago culture, one emphasizing that the reservation is not a fit place for man to live). Other scattered references to Papagos throughout.]
1972 The Plomo papers. Ethnohistory, Vol. 19, no. 4 (Fall), pp. 305-322. Tucson, American Society for Ethnohistory. ["On April 14, 1898, a group of Papago Indians from Arizona made a brief attack on the Mexican mining village of El Plomo, Sonora, a few miles south of the International Boundary. Court records, official telegrams, newspaper accounts, and other documentary materials are arranged with Papago and Mexican oral testimony to let the sources alone tell the story."]
Dole, William P.
1862 Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In Message of the President of the United States, Vol. 2, 37th Congress, 3d session, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, pp. 169-195. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Dated November 26, 1862 and addressed to Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the Interior, on pages 187-188 Papagos are grouped with "Pimos" (Pimas) and Maricopas as Pueblo people; it is said they stand as a barrier between the frontier settlements and the wild tribes; their loyalty to the United States is discussed in detail; and they are described as successful agriculturalists.]
1864 Letter from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Superintendent of Arizona Indian Affairs. In House of Representatives Executive Documents, 1863-64, Vol. 3, no. 1, 38th Congress, 1st session, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, pp. 510-511. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Dated July 16, 1863, and addressed to Charles D. Poston, the letter is a reply to Poston's annual report in which he inquired about setting up a reservation for the Papago around Mission San Xavier del Bac and for Indians living on the Gila and Colorado rivers. Permission to proceed with establishing these reservations is given. He also tells Poston that there are no appropriations for an agent or agents in Arizona.]
1865 Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In House of Representatives Executive Documents, 1864-65, Vol. 5, no. 1, 38th Congress, 2d session, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, pp. 147-191. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Dated November 15, 1864, this report is addressed to J.P. Usher, Secretary of the Interior. Papagos are referred to on page 165: Dole reports on data gathered by Charles D. Poston concerning Papagos and San Xavier del Bac and the fact that a two square mile reservation has been proposed for a population of some 5,000 people.]
1985a Erni Cabat. Tucson Guide, Vol. 3, no. 2 (Fall/Winter), p. 51. Tucson, Madden Publishing, Inc. [About Tucson artist Erni Cabat, including mention of Cabat's affection for and paintings of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]
1985b The White Dove of the Desert. Tucson Guide Quarterly, Vol. 3, no. 2 (Fall/Winter), pp. 47-49. Tucson, Madden Publishing Inc. [Dollar's text takes the form of lengthy captions for Erni Cabat's half-dozen, brightly-colored watercolor renderings of his impressions of Mission San Xavier del Bac, five of them scenes of the interior of the church. Some of the information in the text, "Between 1730 and 1759 two early churches were built," is incorrect.]
1988 Santa Cruz County, land of contentment. Arizona Highways, Vol. 64, no. 4 (April), pp. 22-29. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Passing mention is made of the fact that before the Gadsden Purchase caused the Arizona/Sonora boundary to be drawn where it was, Papago Indians used to live in the region on both sides of the border.]
1991 Rediscover Ajo. Arizona Highways, Vol. 67, no. 2 (February), pp. 38-45. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [The Tohono O'odham beginnings of Ajo, Arizona are briefly alluded to. And a sidebar accompanying the article which tells readers how to get to Ajo devotes a paragraph to the Tohono O'odham Nation and reservation.]
1993a Along the Mexican border. Arizona Highways, Vol. 69, no. 10 (October), pp. 12-37. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [The Papago Indian Reservation is mentioned in passing.]
1993b Hike of the month: amble around Quitobaquito, ancient oasis in the Sonoran Desert. Arizona Highways, Vol. 69, no. 2 (February), pp. 56-57. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Dollar says "Quitobaquito" means "house-ring spring" in Tohono O'odham. The springs and pond are in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in Sand Papago country in southwestern Arizona.]
1994a Legends of the lost: tantalizing myths hold that Montezuma's treasure lies buried somewhere in the Ajo Mountains. Arizona Highways, Vol. 70, no. 10 (October), pp. 48-49. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [This terrible cock-and-bull story contains the sentence: "It is said that the ancients among the Tohono O'odham tribe, the indigenous people of southwest Arizona, once knew where the treasure was buried." The crest of the Ajo Mountains marks the southwestern boundary of the Papago Indian Reservation.]
1994b People of the borderlands. Arizona Highways, Vol. 70, no. 3 (March), pp. 4-11. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Included in this essay about contemporary life along the Arizona/Sonora border is a brief discussion of Pisinemo on the Papago Indian Reservation. A photo of the inside the San Jose church in Pisinemo by Jack Dykinga is included.]
1994 White dove of the desert. Modern Maturity, Vol. 38, no. 5 (September/October), facing p. 81. Lakewood, California, American Association of Retired Persons. [A color photo of Mission San Xavier del Bac by Jack Dykinga taken of the southwest elevation of the church in the early evening accompanies this eight-paragraph account of the mission and the ongoing conservation project taking place there.]
1997 Paths of life. Arizona Highways, Vol. 73, no. 6 (June), pp. 34-37. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [This color-illustrated article about the "Paths of Life" exhibit that opened in 1993 in the Arizona State Museum explains that the exhibit features lifestyles of twenty-one Arizona and two northern Mexican tribes of Indians. Included among them are the Tohono O'odham.]
1913 Papago verb stems. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 10, no. 5 (August 30), pp. 241-263. Berkeley, University of California Press. [This is a dictionary of Papago verbs written by a Papago Indian in his own orthography. It includes both simple verb stems and verbs derived from nouns. There are approximately 600 verbs in the list.]
1923 Papago nominal stems. Edited by J. Alden Mason. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 20, pp. 17-31. Berkeley, University of California Press. [Dolores, a Papago Indian, was Research Fellow at the University of California between 1989 and 1919. This list is a dictionary of common Papago nouns. It is arranged under the following headings: animals, body, parts, botanical terms, natural phenomena, artifacts and manufactures, personal categories, and abstract terms. There are more than 400 words in the list.]
1936 Papago nicknames. In Essays in anthropology presented to A.L. Kroeber in celebration of his sixtieth birthday, edited by Robert H. Lowie, pp. 45-47. Berkeley, University of California Press. [Edited by J. Alden Mason, this essay lists some Papago nicknames and gives the reasons for the names or the meanings they impute. Included in the list are coyote, woodpecker, small bird, goose, water-bird, hawk, deer, devil, dog, monster, quiver, mockingbird, rat, whirlwind, roadrunner, skull, unbaked pot, pet, grasshopper, salt, flour, and fingernails. The Papago for these names in included.]
1982a How to make pottery. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 7. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Donahue is a nine-year-old half Hopi (father) and half Papago (mother) child who lives in Sells on the Papago Indian Reservation. In this two-paragraph essay she briefly describes some of the steps used by her (Papago) grandmother in making pottery.]
1982b Rope twister. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 9. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Described here is a device for twisting horse hair into rope, a device still used in the Papago village of Big Fields.]
1982c [Untitled.] Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 28. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [A drawing by this student in a Papago school of a mythological character is accompanied by a caption describing him as "Thunder Man," who, "When he dances, rain comes down to make plants grow higher."]
Donkersley, Vicki S.
1992 San Xavier: art works inspired by the White Dove of the Desert. Desert Corner Journal, summer, p. 5. Tucson, Tohono Chul Park. [A brief history of Mission San Xavier del Bac is provided as background for an exhibit of watercolors, photographs, lithographs, paintings, and drawings "inspired by the timeless splendor" of this place.]
1960 The unlucky Jesuit mission of Bac. Arizona and the West, Vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 127-139. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [This article traces the history of Mission an Xavier del Bac from 1732 to 1767. Papagos are specifically mentioned on page 127 (in relation to the mission) and 133 (Papagos in a 1756 rebellion at San Xavier del Bac).]
1969 After Kino. Jesuit missions in northwestern New Span, 1711-1767 [Sources and Studies for the History of the Americas, Vol. 6]. Rome, Italy, and St. Louis, Missouri, Jesuit Historical Institute. Map, bibl., index. 183 pp. [Consult the index for numerous references to Papago Indians and to Mission San Francisco Xavier del Bac.]
Doolittle, William E.
1984 Cabeza de Vaca's land of maize: an assessment of its agriculture. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 246-262. London, Academic Press. [A discussion of 16th-century agricultural systems in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, draws on comparisons with Papago agricultural practices as outlined by Castetter and Bell (1942) and others.]
1890 Report of the Superintendent of Indian Schools. In Fifty-ninth annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1890, pp. 246-275. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Dated September 12, 1890 and addressed to Commissioner of Indian Affairs T.J. Morgan, this report includes references to Papagos on pages 248 (population estimated at 4,000 to 7,000, with only 300-500 of them living on their two reservations, one at Gila Bend and the other at San Xavier, the latter with only 2,500 irrigable acres; there are two villages 90 miles south of Tucson, each with 30 adobe houses and both in need of schools); 249 (women are very chaste and men and women are industrious); and 263 (breakdown of student population attending various schools).]
1892 Report of the Superintendent of Indian Schools. In Sixty-first annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1892, pp. 572-573. Washington, Government Printing Office. [This report, dated August 16, 1892, notes that 363 Papagos (on the San Xavier Reservation) have received allotted lands in severalty. He says Papagos were formerly cattle raisers, but appropriation of their grazing lands by whites has made them more dependent on saguaro fruit, mesquite beans, roots, gophers, and a few rabbits. ASome Papagoes supply Tucson with wood and hay, brought in in small bunches on the backs of burros, and others work for settlers, as they find opportunity.@]
1975 The renovation of San Xavier. In Tucson bicentennial program, edited by Dick Frontain, pp. 28-29. Tucson, Salpointe Development Publications. [This is a watercolor painting of the southwest elevation of Mission San Xavier del Bac, one showing people who are presumably working on the repair of the church in the wake of the 1887 earthquake. The artist has used a lot of his or her license.]
Douglas, Frederic H.
1930 Southwestern Indian dwellings. Leaflet, no. 9, pp. 33-36. Denver, Denver Art Museum. [Both aboriginal and modern Papago houses are briefly discussed on page 35.]
1969 Material culture notes; Denver Art Museum. Denver, Denver Art Museum. Illus., bibl. 136 pp. [On pages 60-63 there are scattered references to Papagos' manufacture of wooden bowls similar to the Pima wooden bowl that is the primary focus of this discussion.]
Douglas, Frederic H., and Rene D'Harnoncourt
1941 Indian art of the United States. New York, The Museum of Modern Art. Map, illus., bibl. 219 pp. [Papagos are discussed on pages 137-138 with regard to their basketry. On page 138 there is a photo of a Papago basket made in 1940.]
1986 Stone artifacts. In Archaeological investigations at AZ U:14:75 (ASM), a turn-of-the-century Pima homestead [Archaeological Series, no. 172], edited by Robert W. Layhe, pp. 102-125. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Cultural Resource Management Division. [Douglas describes and analyzes stone artifacts recovered archaeologically from a late 19th-century Pima Indian homestead on the Gila River Indian Reservation. In the process, he draws comparisons with Papago (or other Piman) stone materials excavated from other sites.]
Douglas, Lewis W., and Robert W. Heyer
1964 The other side of the mountain from Tucson. Tucson, Phoenix, and Nogales, Southern Arizona Bank and Trust Company. Maps, illus. 40 pp. [This little guide book to Arizona devotes two pages and two photographs, one of the interior and one of the exterior, to Mission San Xavier del Bac. It is mentioned that the mission is on the Papago Indian Reservation and that the Indians were the church=s builders. AFolk lore has it that as the walls of adobe clay brick were raised, the inside and outside were packed with dirt, Then, at the very top of the structure, they shaped the contour of the existing dome and packed wet adobe around it. When construction had aged and dried, entrance was made through the front door and all the earth was removed ... .@ Which is really a whopper.]
Douglas, William O.
1951 Baboquivari. Arizona Highways, Vol. 27, no. 4 (April), pp. 16-27. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [This is an article about the ascent made by Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas to the top of Baboquivari Peak in March, 1950. He climbed the peaks from the west (Papago Reservation) side, starting from Sells and Topawa. He relates an apocryphal story about Papagos' plunging from the peak rather than submit to Spaniards and includes a brief discussion of traditional Papago culture -- including the use made by Papagos of saguaro cacti. Illustrations include line drawings as well as color and black-and-white photographs.]
1961 My wilderness: east to Katahdin. Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Company, Inc. Maps, illus. 190 pp. [Included here (pp. 78-98) is a chapter entitled "Baboquivari." It tells about Douglas's climbing the 7,730'-high peak. He describes the scenery and ruminates on such topics as the Hohokam, Papagos, and Apaches.]
Douglass, William A.
1979 On the naming of Arizona. Names, Vol. 27, no. 4 (December), pp. 217-234. Potsdam, New York, American Name Society. [A strong case is made to derive the name "Arizona," not from the Papago word for "little spring," as has been generally asserted, but from the Basque aritz onak, meaning "good" (or valuable) oaks." The specific site from which the state got its name was an early 18th century mining camp called "Arizonac."]
Dove of the Desert. Tucson, San Xavier Mission Parish. AA newsletter to the friends of San Xavier Mission.@ Number 1 was issued in the Summer of 1987; number 10, the final issue, appeared in Spring, 1992.
1984 Touting Tucson. Republic, Vol. 5, no. 1 (January), pp. 33-35, 53, 55-57, 59. Los Angeles, East/West Network, Inc. [An interview with Tucson home-builder Pete Herder includes a quote from him suggesting tourists should visit Mission San Xavier del Bac, "still used by the Papago Indians."]
Downing, George L.
1969 Native pottery of the Southwest. Natural History, Vol. 78, no. 6 (June/July), pp. 34-39. New York, American Museum of Natural History. [A one-paragraph characterization -- almost a caricature -- of Papago Indian pottery is found on page 39.]
Downing, Theodore E.
1985 The crisis in American Indian and non-Indian farming. Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 2, no. 3 (Summer), pp. 18-24. Gainesville, Humanities and Agriculture, University of Florida. [In discussing what happens when Indians engage in commercial farming, Downing notes that, "Nobody will pay a premium for Papago cattle," indicating that Indians must compete on the open market with everyone else.]
Downum, Christian E.
1986 Synthesis and research recommendations. In A class III archaeological survey of Phase B corridor, Tucson Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project [Archaeological Series, no. 168], by Christian A. Downum, Adrienne G. Rankin, and Jon S. Czaplicki, pp. 181-222. Tucson, Cultural Resource Management Division, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. [Discussed here (pp. 221-222) are three Piman ("Sobaipuri") sites in the Avra Valley of southern Arizona, with mention of early Spanish-period records concerning Pimans and of the Piman community at San Xavier del Bac. An historic site, presumed to be Papago based on the presence of Papago pottery, is also discussed (p. 222).]
1993 Between desert and river: Hohokam settlement and land use in the Los Robles community. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, no. 57. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [The prehistoric and protohistoric Los Robles community lies north of Tucson on the west side of the Santa Cruz River. Downum briefly discusses probable Papago use and settlement in the area after A.D. 1700 and into the early 19th century.]
Doyel, David E.
1976 Reply to Raab's "A prehistoric cactus camp in Papagueria." Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science, Vol. 11, no. 1 (February), pp. 42-43. Tempe, Arizona Academy of Science. [This is an article criticizing an earlier paper by Mark Raab (1973), one in which Raab interprets a Hohokam site in the Papaguería as a prehistoric site that was a saguaro fruit gathering camp. Raab's conclusion was based at least in part on a Papago ethnographic model. Doyel notes that Raab's study was based on surface indications rather than on excavations, and he also questions Raab's correlating porosity of pottery sherds with specific uses to which that pottery had been put.]
1977a Excavations in the middle Santa Cruz River Valley, southwestern Arizona [Contributions to Highway Salvage Archaeology in Arizona, no. 44]. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum. [Doyel identifies Piman earthenware ceramics from these archaeological investigations in southern Arizona which he believes were manufactured just prior to the arrival or Europeans in the late 17th century.]
1977b Rillito and Rincon period settlement systems in the middle Santa Cruz River Valley: alternative models. Kiva, Vol. 43, no. 2 (Winter), pp. 93-110. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Included here is a discussion of the continuity -- or lack of same -- between the prehistoric Hohokam and the historic O'otam (Pimans) of the middle Santa Cruz Valley of southern Arizona.]
1979a Archaeological investigations at Ariz. BB:13:14 in the Tucson Basin, Arizona. Arizona State Museum Contributions to Highway Archaeology in Arizona, no. 58. [Tucson, Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona.] 30 pp. [This is a report on excavation of a portion of a prehistoric site, one dating ca. A.D. 900-1300, located on the bank of the Santa Cruz River on the San Xavier Indian Reservation. There is no mention of Papagos nor any assertion that these prehistoric remains are a link in the chain of Papago culture history.]
1979b The prehistoric Hohokam of the Arizona desert. American Scientist, Vol. 67, no. 5 (September/October), pp. 544-554. New Haven, Connecticut, Sigma Xi. [Some consideration is given to the problem of whether or not there is continuity between the prehistoric Hohokam and the historic Pima and Papago Indians. Reference is made to Papago farming methods and settlement pattern.]
1986 A short history of Hohokam research. In Emil W. Haury's prehistory of the American Southwest, edited by J. Jefferson Reid and David E. Doyel. pp. 193-210. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Mention is made of the belief by some archaeologists that the Pima and Papago are the direct descendants of the prehistoric Hohokam. There is also some discussion of Papagos' objecting to the excavation of the Papago village of Batki and of the Papago stratum in Ventana Cave.]
1989 The transition to history in northern Pimería Alta. In Columbian consequences. Volume 1. Archaeological and historical perspectives on the Spanish borderlands west, edited by David H. Thomas, pp. 139-158. Washington and London, Smithsonian Institution Press. [This is an overview of the early history of the Pimería Alta, one which raises questions about Pima and Papago social organization and related topics, asking what the archaeological correlates of these phenomena might be.]
1993 Interpreting prehistoric cultural diversity in the Arizona desert. In Culture and contact: Charles C. Di Peso's Gran Chichimeca, edited by Anne I. Woosley and John C. Ravesloot, pp. 39-64. Dragoon, Arizona, Amerind Foundation; Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press. [Large segments of this chapter are devoted to an effort to understand the nature of Di Peso's "O'otam" and the relation of this group to other prehistoric entities in the region. Doyel clearly comes down on the side of a lack of Hohokam-"O'otam" continuity.]
2000 In pursuit of Salado in the Sonoran Desert. In Salado, edited by Jeffrey S. Dean, pp. 295-314. Dragoon, Arizona, Amerind Foundation; Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press. [Doyel cites Underhill (1939: 103) regarding the trading by Tohono O=odham to the Gila River Pima of the seeds, syrup, and fruit of cactus; agave cakes and fiber; wild gourds; peppers; acorns; sleeping mats; baskets; dried meat; buckskin; pigments; and salt. In return they received corn and wheat.]
1916 Save the babies. The Red Man, Vol. 8, no. 7 (March), pp. 244-245. Carlisle, Pennsylvania, The Carlisle Indian Press. [Doyle was field matron on the San Xavier Reservation when she wrote this brief article urging better pre-natal care for Indian mothers. She also tells about her belief that she saved a Papago baby from pneumonia by the administration of castor oil and a liniment rubdown.]
Dozier, Edward P.
1971 The American Southwest. In North American Indians in historical perspective, edited by Eleanor B. Leacock and Nancy O. Lurie, pp. 228-256. New York, Random House. [Dozier draws on data from Ruth Underhill's Social Organization of the Papago Indians (1939) to summarize Papago social and cultural characteristics (pp. 242-243).]
a Dear friends and donors. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1 [unnumbered] page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Drachman publishes a note to supporters of the conservation program underway at Mission San Xavier del Bac, outlining future needs and requesting donations. Her letter is accompanied by five black-and-white photos, including one showing Tohono O'odham Timothy Lewis; another showing Tohono O'odham apprentice conservators Mark Lopez, Donny Preston, and Gabriel Wilson; one showing all the conservators, three of the O'odham included; and one that includes Timothy Lewis among other people.]
1995b Mission San Xavier del Bac -- a treasure too rich to lose. The Heritage Guardian, Vol. 1, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 1, 6-7. Phoenix, Arizona Heritage Alliance. [This article about the ongoing conservation project at Mission San Xavier del Bac mentions the involvement in the project of four apprentice Tohono O'odham conservators. Trainee Timothy Lewis, a Tohono O'odham, is shown at work in a black-and-white photograph.]
 Dear friends and donors. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1 [unnumbered] page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Drachman reports on activities of the conservators who have been working on the interior of the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac, and she observes that 1997 should see the conclusion of their work.]
1997 Mission San Xavier del Bac preservation program, 1991-1997. [Tucson, Patronato San Xavier]. [Ths is the one-page introduction in a special bound volume that contains a copy of Fontana (1971a) as well as Fontana (1997a). It was bound and distributed to important donors to the program to preserve Mission San Xavier del Bac.]
 Dear donors. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1 [unnumbered] page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. Drachman thanks donors who have supported conservation of Mission San Xavier del Bac, and she notes the concert held in the church in December, 1997 that featured the Tucson Boys' Chorus, the Sons of Orpheus Men's Choir, and singer Linda Ronstadt.]
2003 The scaffolding on the west bell tower of San Xavier. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, p. . Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Drachman explains the many reasons for the extremely elaborate scaffolding that has recently been erected around the west bell tower of Mission San Xavier del Bac. It was put there by Daniel Morales and his crew so they can repair and restore the bell tower.]
2000 From Mahina Drees, Board Chairman. Seedhead News, no. 71 (Winter), p. 7. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [This is a resolution and cover letter by Mahina Dress and the board of directors of Native Seeds/SEARCH to outgoing executive Director Angelo J. Joaquin, Jr., a Tohono O'odham, who was director from 1995 through the year 2000.]
1914 "Give us this day our daily work." A story which shows that a teacher is greater than a policeman. Sunset, Vol. 33, no. 5 (November), pp. 943-950. San Francisco, Passenger Department, Southern Pacific Company. [An article about Arizona Governor George W.P. Hunt's prison reforms favorably compares the Arizona State Prison with Mission San Xavier del Bac. Mention is made of the missionaries' teaching the Indians at San Xavier how to irrigate and how to surround the area with farms. Mission and prison, it is said, are other institutions whose purpose is to teach men "how to become useful citizens." A black-and-white reproduction of a Langdon Kihn painting of Mission San Xavier is included.]
Driver, Harold E.
1969 Indians of North America. 2nd edition, revised. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Maps, illus., bibl., index. 632 pp. [So-called "Hohokam-Basket Maker" corn survives among the Papagos (p. 68); Pima and Papago winemaking ceremony is mentioned (pp. 109-110); Papago music and musical styles are discussed (pp. 203-204); patrilocal extended families among Papagos owned the farm land (p. 237); a patrilocal, agamous, twofold division among Papagos functioned in ceremonies and athletic games and influenced the dreaming of males (p. 249); men gathered no wild plant foods of any kind (p. 266); and Papagos had a patricentered system of land tenure in which the patrideme was the territorial unit (p. 280).]
1972 Indian wealth -- Is it only a myth? In Look to the mountaintop, edited by Robert L. Iacopi, Bernard L. Fontana, and Charles Jones, pp. 67-74. San Jose, California, Gousha Publications. [Included here is a photograph (taken by William Dinwiddie in 1894) of Papago Indian children standing beneath a ramada attached to their house.]
1941 Culture element distributions: XVII. Yuman-Piman. Anthropological Records, Vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 91-230. Berkeley, University of California Press. [Papagos are on nearly every page and in every cultural element distribution chart. Major topics listed include subsistence; material culture; amusements; social culture; individual development; ceremonials; shamanism; and miscellaneous customs and beliefs. Each topic is further subdivided into numerous subdivisions. Map and bibliography included.]
1999 Piecing together the lost history of the Tucson basin. Footprints, Vol. 11, nos. 6/7 (June/July), p. 5. Tucson, Southern Arizona Guides Association. [Discussion of an archaeological investigation of a five-room adobe house that was occupied from the 1870s to 1895 on the far northwest side of Tucson includes mention of pieces of "Papago red pottery used for cooking and storing foods." The house was occupied by members of the Juan and María Bojórquez family.]
Du Bois, Susan M., and Ann W. Smith
1980 The 1887 earthquake in San Bernardino Valley, Sonora: historic accounts and intensity patterns in Arizona [Special Paper, no. 3]. Tucson, Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology, University of Arizona. Maps, illus., refs., indices. 112 pp. [This detailed study of the effects of the May 3, 1887 earthquake that struck northeastern Sonora includes illustrations of the damage it caused at Mission San Xavier del Bac and mention of how the quake was felt at the village of Coyote Sits (Ban Tak) in the Papaguería as indicated by a Papago calendar stick account,]
Duclos, Antoinette S.
1939 Rhythm that comes from the earth. Desert Magazine, Vol. 2, no. 4 (February), pp. 12-14. El Centro, California, Desert Publishing Company. [Passing mention is made of Papago basketry in this article about Pima basketmaker Mary Juan. A Pima basket with a man-in-the-maze design appears here as an illustration.]
Duell, Prentice W.
1917 "A study of the Mission San Xavier del Bac near Tucson, Arizona." Master's thesis, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Illus. [A fairly thorough description of the architecture of Mission San Xavier del Bac, with full sections on history, description, architecture, and construction. Excellent blueprint plans showing various cross sections are included.]
1919a Arizona missions. Arizona, Vol. 10, no. 8 (August), front cover, p. 7. Phoenix, State Publishing Company. [The front cover is a photograph of Mission San Xavier del Bac. This is the first installment of an excellent article describing all of Arizona's Spanish-period missions, including those that were in the Hopi Indian country. The emphasis is on Spanish-period history and architecture.]
1919b Arizona's old missions. Arizona, Vol. 10, no. 9 (September), pp. 7, 14; Vol. 10, no. 11 (November), pp. 7, 12-13; and Vol. 10, no 12 (December), pp. 7, 16-18. Phoenix, State Publishing Company. [This is a continuation of Duell (1919a), with many photographic illustrations included.]
1919c Mission architecture as examplified (sic) in San Xavier del Bac. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. Illus., bibl. 135 pp. [This is an expansion of Duell (1917), one that includes comparative data on other Southwest missions, especially those in Texas and California. It concerns the history, description, architecture, and construction of the mission with excellent photographs throughout, including one of a Papago ki (dome-shaped brush house).]
1920 Missions in and around Tucson. Tucson, Tucson Chamber of Commerce. [This is a condensation of Duell (1919c). Papagos are mentioned on p. 7 where there is also a photo entitled, "Indian dance at San Xavier." There is a photo of the interior of the church on page 5, and on pages 8 and 9 there are photos of the exterior.]
1934 San Xavier del Bac -- architecture and decoration. In Arizona in literature, edited by Mary G. Boyer, pp. 473-477. Glendale, California, The Arthur H. Clark Company. [Here are excerpts from Duell (1919c).]
Duffen, William A., editor
1960 Overland via "Jackass Mail" in 1858. The diary of Phocion R. Way. Part two. Arizona and the West, Vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 147-164. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Papagos are mentioned by Way as being one of three Indian tribes around Tucson (p. 162); Mission San Xavier del Bac is discussed in some detail (pp. 162-164); and it is noted there is a settlement of Papagos near San Xavier (p. 163). Also see Way (1991).]
DuFort, Molly E.
1991 ADiscourse, practice, knowledge, and interaction in Tohono O=odham health and illness.@ Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson. 198 pp. [AThis study ... looks at conflicts between different belief systems and different discourse practices in cross-cultural communication between Tohono O=odham (Papago) families of children with disabilities and non-Indian service providers.@ Among the major findings: AA system of beliefs and practices about cause, prevention and treatment of serious illness exists in O=odham communities which differs significantly from the biomedical system within which medical and educational services to children with disabilities is provided. ... The major genres used by O=odham people to provide information differ significantly from the formats routinely used by service providers to elicit information.@]
Dunbar, Edward E.
1858 Execution of Col. Crabb and Associates. F. In House of Representatives Executive Documents, no. 64, 35th Congress, 1st session, Vol. 9, pp. 58-61. Washington, James B. Steedman, Printer. [Dunbar had a house and store on the Arizona side of the border near Sonoyta, Sonora, in 1857 when Henry Alexander Crabb and his gang of filibusters made an unsuccessful attempt to take over Sonora. This letter, dated August 27, 1857 was written by Dunbar from Guaymas, Sonora to the U.S. Vice Consul in Mazatlán to shed light on events leading up to and after the killing of Crabb and his party in Caborca, Sonora, by local Mexican and Indian patriots. Dunbar was in Sonoyta after April 6, the day of Crabb's defeat, when Papago Indians brought rumors of the occurrence. He was about to leave Sonoyta when, "rumors more distinct reached me by two Pápagos, who appeared to have come direct from Caborca. They stated that the Americans had all been killed, and that troops might by expected in Sonoyta to kill the four sick Americans left by Crabb on his passage, and who were then occupying the house of Don Jesus Estrella, in the pueblo."]
1968 The Sonoran Desert: its geography, economy and people. Tucson, The University of Arizona ress. Maps, illus., bibl., index. 426 pp. [There is a photo of Mission San Xavier del Bac on page 133, and there are scattered references to Papagos on pages 104-108 (discussion of Papago economy); 132 (some Upper Pima practiced "arroyo flood farming"); 135 (Father Kino was unable to establish missions among the majority of Papagos); 143 (Papagos and wheat); 152 (1770: Papagos and other Indians among ninety-five settlements in Sonora); and 384 (continuing exodus of workers from the Papago Reservation). Photos taken by William Dinwiddie in 1894 are of an occupied Papago house in southern Arizona, probably at Fresnal, and of an unoccupied Papago house, probably at Choulic, are on page 105. They are improperly captioned in the book.]
Duncan, Robert L.
1979 The burning sky. New York and Toronto, Ballantine Books. 281 pp. [A novel whose setting is largely the Papago Indian Reservation and the empty desert country to its west where a lost tribe of Hohokam Indians continues to dwell. Papagos, trading posts, and Franciscan missionaries are among those who are featured in the story. This is a paperback reprint of James Hall Roberts (1966).]
Dunlay, Thomas W.
1982 Wolves for the blue soldiers: Indian scouts and auxiliaries with the United States Army, 1860-90. Lincoln and London, University of Nebraska Press. Ilus., bibl. essay, index. 304 pp. [Brief attention is paid to Papagos who served with and alongside the U.S. Army in fighting Apaches during the second half of the 19th century. Mention is made of Papagos' role in the Camp Grant Massacre and of their purification rite after killing an enemy.]
Dunn, J.P., Jr.
1886 Massacres of the mountains - a history of the Indian wars of the Far West. New York, Harper & Brothers. 748 pp. [There are mentions of Papagos and of San Xavier del Bac on pages 152-153, 155, 187, 385-386, and 743.]
Dunne, Peter M.
1941 Captain Anza and the case of Father Campos. Mid-America, Vol. 23, no. 1 (January), pp. 45-60. Chicago, Loyola University. [Father Agustín Campos, S.J., served among the Northern Piman Indians at his mission station of San Ignacio in the Pimería Alta from 1693 to 1736, the year of his death. This essay is about the falling out between Campos and his fellow Jesuits and his forced removal from San Ignacio in 1736, including mention the willingness of the Pimans to protect him, by force if necessary, from removal. Father Campos= 43 years of service among the Northern Pimans was the longest for any missionary during the entire colonial period.]
Dunne, Peter M., translator and annotator
1955 Jacobo Sedelmayr: missionary, frontiersman, explorer in Arizona and Sonora. Four original manuscript narratives, 1744-1751. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers= Historical Society. Illus., index. iv + 82 + x pp. [There are numerous references to Papago and other Piman Indians and to San Xavier del Bac throughout this book relating to the mid-18th century Pimería Alta missionary activities of Jesuit missionary Jacobo Sedelmayr. Consult the index.]
1957 Juan Antonio Balthasar: padre visitador to the Sonora frontier, 1744-1745. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. Maps, index. 122 pp. [Mentions of Papagos are on pages 45 (Father Sedelmayr and the Papagos); 78 (Papagos, who number about 6,000, occupy the area beyond the last missions of the Pimería Alta); and 81-82 (Papagos should be assigned to the proposed Pima missions as they speak the same language as the Pima).]
1983 Lower Pima. In Handbook of North American Indians, edited by William C. Sturtevant, Vol. 10, Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 217-229. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. [Brief mention is made of the similarity between the Papago language and the Lower Pima dialect spoken at Onavas, Sonora.]
1977 [Untitled.] Sun Tracks, Vol. 3, no. 2 (Spring), p. 21. Tucson, American Indian Student Club and the Department of English, University of Arizona. [This is a ten-sentence impression by a student at the Santa Rosa School on the Papago Indian Reservation, one in which he pretends to be a hawk or eagle.]
1976 Camping and vacationing with the First Americans. Matteson, Illinois, Greatlakes Living Press. Maps, illus., bibl. iv + 218 pp. [On pages 43-51 there is a general discussion of the Papago Indian Reservation, with the reservation indicated on an Arizona highway map. Text is superficial and sometimes wrong. Nowhere is it mentioned that even at the time the book was published it was required to get a permit from the Papago Tribe to camp on the reservation or even to trespass beyond its roads. Five black-and-white photos by James Tallon accompany the Papago section of the book.]
Durivage, John E.
1937 Through Mexico to California: letters and journals of John E. Durivage. In Southern trails to California [Southwest Historical Series, Vol. 5], edited by Ralph P. Bieber, pp. 159-255. Glendale, The Arthur H. Clark Company. Map, illus. [Pages 210-211 include the journal entry by Durivage for Mar 23, 1849, which mentions a visit to and discussion of Mission San Xavier del Bac and the "Pimo" Indians living near it. He describes them as being "... mostly a bright and intelligent people."]
Dutton, Bertha P.
1975 Indians of the American Southwest. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. xxix + 298 pp. [A sketchy overview of Papago culture, history, and their modern situation is on pages 220-232.]
1983 American Indians of the Southwest. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press. 285 pp. [This is a revised and enlarged edition of Dutton (1975). It contains more text with fewer illustrations.]
Dutton, Bertha, and Caroline Olin
1978 Myths and legends of the Indians on the Southwest. Navajo, Pima, Apache. San Francisco, Bellerophon Books. Illus. ["Pima" here really means "Piman," and there are references to Papagos throughout as well as drawings of Papago baskets, dances, and other artifacts. This is essentially a book for young readers.]
1989 The AWhite Dove of the Desert,@ Mission San Xavier del Bac. In Arizona Highways 1990 calendar, April. Phoenix, Arizona Highways, a division of the Arizona Department of Transportation. [This is a color photograph of the south elevation of the church and convento wing of Mission San Xavier del Bac B with the image reversed!]
1998 [Untitled.] Arizona Highways, Vol. 74, no. 3 (March), inside front cover-p. 1. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [The sunset view here in color by photographer Dykinga is of the southeast elevation of the main dome and parapets along the roof of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]
1998 Also see K. Walker (1998b)
2002 Below the Quinlan Mountains on the Tohono O'odham reservation, a field of Mexican gold poppies stretches to the horizon. Arizona Highways, Vol. 78, no. 3 (March), pp. 32-33. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [This is the caption for a spectacular color photo of wild flowers in bloom near the junction of Arizona State Highway 86 and Indian Reservation Route 37 on the Papago Indian Reservation. In addition to gold poppies, there are owl-clover and lupine.]
2003 [Untitled color photograph of Mission San Xavier del Bac.] Arizona Highways, Vol. 79, no. 10 (October), front cover. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Taken through one of the arches in the so-called AGranjon=s Gate,@ the view here is of a portion of the northeast elevation of the church, one featuring the parapet, dome, and west bell tower.]